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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An enduring change in behavior that results from experience
A type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response
classical conditioning
a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex
unconditioned response
a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that elecits a response only after learning has taken place
conditioned stimulus
a response that has been learned
conditioned response
the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and the unconditioned stimuli
a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
a process in which a previously extinquished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
stimulus generalization
a learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one if consistently associated with the US and the other is not
stimulus discrimination
an aquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or a situation
the idea that animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear specific objects
biological preparedness
a cognititve model of classical conditioning that states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined the by extent to which the US is unexpected
Rescorla-Wagner model
a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
operant conditioning
Thorndike's general theory of learning that states that any behavior that leads to a satisfying state of affairs is more likely to occur again, and those that lead to an annoying state of affairs are less likely to recur
law of effect
a stimulus following a response that increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
a process of operant conditioning that involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
reinforcers that are innately reinforcing such as those that satisfy biological needs
primary reinforcers
events or objects that become reinforcers through their repeated pairings with primary reinforcers
secondary reinforcers
a stimulus following a response that decreases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
the increase in the probability of a behaviors being repeated following the administration of a pleasurable stimulus (reward)
positive reinforcement
the increase in the probability of a behaviors being repeated through the removal of an aversive stimulus
negative reinforcement
punishment that occurs with administration of a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behaviors recurring
positive punishment
punishment that occurs with removal of a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behaviors recurring
negative punishment
a type of learning in which the desired behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
continuous reinforcement
a type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittenly
partial reinforcement
a schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times a behavior occurs
ratio schedule
a schedule in which reinforcement is based on a specific unit of time
interval schedule
a schedule in which reinforcement is consistently provided upon each occurance
fixed schedule
a schedule in which reinforcement is applied at different rates at different times
variable schedule
the greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement
partial-reinforcement extinction effect
a visual/spatial mental representation of the environment
cognitive map
learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
latent learning
the knowledge transferred within a culture
learning that occurs when behaviors are acquired or modified following exposure to others performing the behavior
observational learning
the imitation of behavior through observational learning
learning that occurs when people learn the consequences of an action by observing others being rewarded or punished performing the action
vicarious learning
neurons in the premotor cortex that are activated during observation of others performing an action
mirror neurons
a procedure in which animals are able to self-administer electrical shock to specific areas of the brain
intracranial self stimulation
a decrease in behavioral response following repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimuli
a increased behavioral response following exposure to a threatening stimulus
the strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated
long-term potentiation (LTP)