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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a part of the hindbrain that is concerned with sleep and arousal
a part of the hindbrain that regulates an coordinates basic motor activities and may also play a role in learning
region of the brain above the hindbrain that contains the reticular formation
a part of the midbrain involved in the regulation and maintenance of consciousness
reticular formation
branchlike extensions of the soma that receive information from other neurons
region of the brain above the midbrain that contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system
a part of the forebrain that is the brain's sensory relay station, sending messages from the senses to higher parts of the brain
a part of the forebrain involved in regulating basic biological processes, such as eating, drinking, sexual activity, emotion, and a stable body temperature
a part of the forebrain consisting of structures that influence fear and aggression (amygdala) and the acquisition and consolidation of new information in memory (hippocampus)
limbic system
the uppermost portion of the forebrain, which is the "thinking" center of the brain
the thin, outer surface of the cerebrum, containing about 80 percent of the brain's total mass; largely responsible for higher-order mental processes
cerebral cortex
the two main parts of the cerebral cortex
cerebral hemispheres
a thick band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres that transmit information between them
corpus callosum
one of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, located at the back of the cerebral hemispheres, that is primarily responsible from visual processing
occipital lobes
one of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, situated in front of the occipital lobes, that is involved in touch sensations and in monitoring the body's position in space
parietal lobes
one of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, located below the parietal lobes and near the temples, that is important in audition and language
temporal lobes
one of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, situated in the front of the cerebral hemispheres and behind the forehead, that is involved in the coordination of movement and higher mental processes
frontal lobes
the degree to which the right or left hemispheres control various cognitive and behavioral functions
cerebral lateralization
the inability to recognize or express language as a result of damage to brain tissue, such as after a stroke
the visible and measurable traits of an organism
the underlying genetic composition of an organism
the basic biochemical unit of inheritance that is located on and transmitted by chromosomes
threadlike structures carrying genetic information and found in every cell of the body
the complex molecular strands of a chromosome that contains thousands of different genes, lacted at fixed positions
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
one of 23 pairs of chromosomes that determines wheter someone is male or female
sex chromosome
twins who develop in the womb from the union of two separate sperms and eggs (also know as dizygotic twins)
fraternal twins
twins who develop from the union of the same egg and sperm, and thus, share exactly the same genotype (also know as monozygotic twins)
identical twins
the study of how the genotype and the environment of an organism influence the organism's behavior
behavior genetics
Specialized cells in the nervous system that send and receive information
the cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus an other components that preserve and nourish it
an estension of the some that sends information in the form of electrochemical impulses to other neurons
a protective coating of fatty cells around an axon that hastens the transmission of the electrochemical charge
myelin sheath
the entire area composed of the terminal button of one neuron, the synaptic cleft, and the dendrite of another neuron
non-neuron cells that supply the neurons with support, nutrients, and insulation.
glial cells
the stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron
resting potentional
the brief shift in a neuron;s electrical charge that travels down the axon
action potential
chemical messengers released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic cleft and either excite or inhibit adjacent neurons
a neurotransmitter involved in muscle contractions and memory information
acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter that promotes and facilitates movements, as well as influencing thought and emotion
dopamine (DA)
a family of neurotransmitters that are similar to morphine and that play an important role in the experience of pleasure and the control of pain
that portion of the nervous system containing all the nerves outside the brain and pinal cord
peripheral nervous system
a bundle of axons from many neurons that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
a division of the peripheral nervous system that transmits commands to the voluntary skeletal muscles and receives sensory information from the muscles and the skin
somatic nervous system
a division of the peripheral nervous sustem that controls movement of nonskeletal muscles, such as the heart and lung muscles, over which people have little or no voluntary control
autonomic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body's energy resources to deal with threatening situations
sympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous sustem that acts to conserve and maintain the body's energy resources
parasympathetic nervous system
that portion of the nervous system located in the bony central core of the body and consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system
a clear, cushioning fluid secreted by the brain and circulated inside an around the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrospinal fluid
the slender, tube-shaped part of the central nervous system that extends from the base of the brain, down the center of the back, and is made up of a bundle of nerves
spinal cord
an automatice, involuntary response to sensory stimuli, many of which are facilitated by the spinal nerves
a network of glands in various parts of the body that manufactures and scretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
endocrine system
hemical signals manufactured and secreted into the blood in one part of the body and that affect other parts of the body
the body's "master" gland, located at the base of the brain, whose hormones stimulate and regulate the rest of the endocrine system
pituitary gland
the gland, located just below the larynx in the neck, that controls metabolism
thyroid gland
two glands, located near the kidneys, that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which activate the sympathetic nervous system
adrenal glands
the two sex glands, called ovaries in females and testes in males
an instrument that records "waves" of electrical activity in the brain using metal electrodes placed on a person's scalp
electroencephalograph (EEG)
a brain-imaging technique in which thousands of X-ray photographs of the brain are taken and them combined to construct a cross-sectional brain picture
camputerized axial tomograph (CAT) scan
A brain-imaging technique that produces three-dimensional images of the brain's soft tissues by detecting magnetic activity from nuclear particles in brain molecules
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a brain-imaging technique that measure over several minutes the average amount of neural activity in different brain regions by showing each region's consumption of sugar glucose, the brain's chemical fuel
positron emission tomography (PET) scan
a brain-imaging technique that measures over a few seconds the average neural activity in different brain regions by showing fluctuations in blood oxygen levels
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
region of the brain above the spinal cord that contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
a part of the hindbrain that controls breathing, heart rate, swallowing, and digestion, as well as allowing us to maintain an upright posture