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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people
think about, influence, and relate to one another
The experimental factor that a reseracher manipulates in a study is called the ________ variable.
independent
Socially shared beliefs are widely held ideas and values, which include our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This is a definition of
Social representations
An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. Aggression was the
dependent variable
Another name for the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon" is the
Hindsight bias
Variable X is correlated with Variable Y. Which of the following could explain this correlation?
X causes Y,
Y causes X,
A third variable causes or influences both X and Y
Your psych professor tells you that she is collecting data on the amount that students study and their grades (so that she can determine if there is a relationship between hrs spent studying and grades). Which type of research is this?
correlational research
The major purpose of random assignment in an experiment is to
minimize the differences between groups
_______ is defined as the beliefs about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
Self-schema
When it comes to predicting the intensity and duration of our future emotions, research indicates that most people
experience great difficulty
According to the results of the Kahan and Johnson (1992) study mentioned in the text, two days after a conversation with someone our recall is best for what
the other person said about us
Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the
self-reference effect
Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?
Implicit
When we accommodate and adjust to personal injuries, romantic breakups, and exam failures, we cope more readily than we would expect. Wilson and Gilbert (2003) referred to this phenomenon as
immune neglect
Your best friend earned a grade of F on her latest physics exam, and believes it was because the professor wrote a very difficult exam. She therefore has a(n) _______ locus of control.
external
According to the self-serving bias, we tend to attribute our successes to _______ and our losses to _______.
skill; chance
John is nervous about his tennis match, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night’s sleep the night before the match. This could be an example of
Self-handicapping
Adjusting one's behavior in response to external situations to create the desired impression
What is self-monitoring
Despite reading numerous research studies that report the association of fast food consumption with heart disease and diabetes, Rachel continues to eat fast food and thinks that it is harmless. Rachel’s thinking is an example of
belief perseverance
Your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during the final week of August, you remember it as being a fantastic time. This is an example of
reconstucting out past attitudes
Each semester you repeatedly underestimate how long it will take you to complete a research paper that is due at the end of the term. Your behavior is an example of the
overconfidence phenomenon
One reason people are overconfident is that they are not inclined to seek out information...
that might disprove what they believe
According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly
congratulate them for being neat and tidy
Assuming most crimes involve violence because the news generally reports on rapes, robberies, and beatings is an example of the _______ heuristic
availability
Counterfactual thinking is more likely when
we can easily picture an alternative outcome
Research by Abbey (1998) found that _______ are likely to attribute a _______ friendliness to mild sexual interest.
men; women
According to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. This is an example of
misattribution
Misha is struggling with her computer. She is asked if she has difficulty using other computers on campus. The answer to this question provides information about _______. What about if she was asked if she usually encounters difficulty when using her computer? _______
distinctiveness; Consistency
According to a study by Burger and Pavelich (1994), voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the _______ the day after a presidential election, and to the _______ a year after the election.
Candidate's personal traits and positions; nation's economy
In _______ cultures, people are less likely to perceive others in terms of personal dispositions.
collectivistic
When social psychologists try to measure attitudes of people they end up measuring
Expressed attitudes
Research conducted on prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors revealed that college students who expressed higher than average feelings of prejudice toward Arab Americans were
More willing than those low in prejudice to convey bad news to Arabs
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave is what social psychologists call a(n)
Role
The effect of _______ on _______ was vividly demonstrated in Zimbardo’s (1971) classic study of a simulated prison.
Roles; behaviors
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the _______ phenomenon.
foot-in-the-door
A variation of the foot-in-the-door technique is often used by car dealers, because it typically results in people complying with higher and higher requests. It is called the _______ technique.
low-ball
The research indicates that if you wish to love someone more, you should
act as if you do
The tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions is called
cognitive dissonance
The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is strongest when
people feel that they have some choice in their behavior
After much deliberation, you decide on a college to attend. After you have made your decision, you find yourself reducing any dissonance by _______ the chosen university and _______ the unchosen universities.
upgrading; downgrading
Myra’s neighbor, a little boy, practices his saxophone loudly and annoyingly. According to the overjustification effect, if Myra wants to get him to quit playing, she should
pay him to play and then offer him less and less
Dissonance theory explains attitude _______, whereas self-perception theory explains attitude _______.
Change; formation
As mentioned in the textbook, the daily flag salute by school children in the U.S. is an attempt to use _______ to build _______.
public conformity; private beliefs
Myers argues that the major strength of correlational research is the
fact that it occurs in real-world settings
Compared to those with low self-esteem, people with a sense of self-worth are
happier
According to Myers’ discussion on social comparison, people typically _______ the standards by which they evaluate their own attainments when they experience a(n) _______ in affluence, status, or achievement.
raise; increase
Which of the following strategies might be helpful in reducing the overconfidence bias?
Get people to think about why their judgments might be wrong
Education and persuasion tend to change what type of attitudes?
Explicit
Jeremy loses his former interest in doing arithmetic after his teacher promises him $1 for each problem he solves correctly. Which theory best explains Jeremy’s loss of interest in arithmetic?
Self-perception theory
Time-lagged correlations, according to the text, are an advanced correlational technique that can reveal the _______ variables or events, such as achievement and self-esteem.
sequence of
Myers discussion of the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement concludes that
both self-esteem and academic achievement are likely caused by a third variable
The insufficient justification effect involves reducing dissonance by _______ justifying one’s behavior when _______ justification is insufficient.
internally; external
According to the text, _______ realism is not as important in social psychological research as _______ realism is.
mundane; experimental