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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psycology
Scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes
Chapter 1
Wilhelm Wundt
German who founded first offical Psycology lab in Leipzig in 1879. His ideas were used in the developement of structualism.
Chaper 1
Introspection
The application of Structuralism to individual self-assesement.
Chapter 1
Structuralism
A way of studying the mind and behavior in a methodical manner with the idea that they can be explained as a simple combination of elements and events.
Chapter 1
Functionalism
The view that the mental and physical are effected as as they interact continously with their environment. This mindset was pioneered by William James, who allowed for the complicated impact of emotions on individuals.
Chapter 1
Biological perspective
Sees the function of biologoical organs like genes, brain, nervios system, and endocrine system as the factors that effect behavior.
Chapter 1
Psycodynamic(analytic) perspective
Individuals have internal factors, desires, and instincts that control their behavior. This concept was championed by the Viennese doctor Sigmund Freud, who allowed for irrational behavior of people because of their strong inner impulses.
Chapter 1
Behaviorist perspective
Seek to understand behavior interms of how the environment may effect an individual.
Chapter 1
Humanistic perspective
An attempt to better understand action by understanding an individuals subjective viewpoint. General assumptions are that individuals can make rational choices and are generally good.
Chapter 1
Cognitive perspective
Focuses on thoughts and ways of knowing; studies actions interms of the prespective of each individual.
Chapter 1
Evolutionary perspective
Based on idea that the mental processes of modern individuals has evolved and adapted to particular purposes. Uses this assumption to interpret current problems and patterns in behavior.
Chapter 1
Cultural perspective
Addresses the differences between cultures and how various peoples cause and promote particular actions.
Chapter 2
Hypothesis
A suggested explanation for the relationship between two (or more) variable that is usually presented as a prediction.
Chapter 2
Standarization
A set of procedures for acquiring and interpreting data to ensure objectivity.
Chapter 2
Independant variable
An stimulus condition which can vary independantly from other varible.
Chapter 2
Dependant variable
A varible that is subject to change when other varibles change; the experimental element that is being measured.
Chapter 2
Double-blind control
An experimental condition in which both experimenters and participants are kept ignorant of which subjects are recieving treatment.
Chapter 2
Random assignment
An experiemental condition in which subjects are randomly assinged to either experimental or control environments.
Chpater 2
Possitive correlation
Indicates that 2 coefficients are dirctly proportional. Designated by a correlation coefficeint that equals +1.
Chapter 2
Negitive correlation
Indicates that the coeeficients are inversly proportional. Designate by a correletaion coefficient of -1.
Chapter 2
Correlation coefficient
A statistic that repressents the degree of relationship between two variables.
Chapter 2
a. Perfect Correlation
b. Zero Correlation
a. Indicates a very strong relationship ship between two variables.
b. Indcates no relationship between two variables.
Chapter 2
Negitive correlation
Indicates that the coeeficients are inversly proportional. Designate by a correletaion coefficient of -1.
Stat
Standard Deviation (SD)
The average distance between a set of scores and their mean; measures variablity.
Stat
Statistical Significance
The difference between experimental groups that would have occured by chance less than an accepted criterion (usually less than 5 times out of 100 or p < 0.05)
Chapter 3
Broca's area
The part of the brain that translates ideas into speach or sign.
Chapter 3
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
A method of recording the brains electrical activity.
Chapter 3
PET scans
Brain imaging procedure that records the brain's activity by measurng radioactivity during varous mental proceses.
Chapter 3
(MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
A system for brain imaging that uses magnetic fields and radio waves.
Chapter 3
Functional MRI (fMRI)
Brain scans that include both MRI and PET techniques to detect chnages in magnetism in blood flow to the brain.
Chapter 3
Medulla
Part of brain stem that regulates breathing, waking, heartbeat. Located at the top of spinal cord.
Chapter 3
Pons
Area of brain stem that joins spinal cord and brain and intercontects the brain. Located directly above the medulla.
Chapter 3
Reticular formation
Region of brain stem that alerts cerebral cortex to incoming signals and regulates contiousness and awakening. Runs along top of brain stem.
Chapter 3
Thalamus
Brain structure that relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex. Connected to the retucular formation.
Chapter 3
Cerebellum
Brian structure that coordinates movement, balance, posture, and equillibrium. Located at the back of skull, attached to brain stem.
Chapter 3
Limbic system
Brain region that controls emotions, instinctual drives, memory, and physiological functions.
Chapter 3
Hippocampus
Limbic structure that permits the recording of explicit memories.
Chapter 3
Amygdala
part of limbic system that paricipates in emotional control and emotional memories.
Chapter 3
Hypothalamus
Limbic organ that regulates motivated physiolgical activites and helps to maintain homeostasis.
Chapter 3
Cerebrum
Area of brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions. Largest area of brain.
Chapter 3
Hypothalamus
Limbic organ that regulates motivated physiolgical activites and helps to maintain homeostasis.
Chpater 3
Cerebral Cortex
Outer layer of cerebrum.
Chapter 3
Cerebral hemispheres
The two halves of the cerebrum connected by corpus callosum.
Chapter 3
Corpus callosum
The pathway for messages passing between the hemispheres.
Chapter 3
Frontal lobe (of cerebrum)
Mediates motor control (motor cortex), cognitive activites. Located above lateral fissure and in fornt of central sulcus.
Chapter 3
Parietal lobe
Responcible for sensations of pain, temp, and touch (somatosensory cortex). Located above lateral fissure and behind frontal lobe.
Chapter 3
Parietal lobe
Responcible for sensations of pain, temp, and touch (somatosensory cortex). Located above lateral fissure and behind frontal lobe.
Chapter 3
Temporal lobe
Regulates hearing (auditory cortex). Below lateral fissure.
Chapter 3
Occipital lobe
Sorts visual information (visual cortex). Rearmost reagion of brain
Chapter 3
Occipital lobe
Sorts visual information (visual cortex). Rearmost reagion of brain
Chapter 3
Association cortex
Regions of cerebral cortex in which many high-level brain processes occur.
Chapter 3
Wernicke's area
Area that decodes and interprets words. Located in auditory cortex.
Chapter 3
Split-brain research
The investigation of the over laping and unique functions of the 2 hemispheres by studying patients that have severed corpus callosums.
Chapter 3
Endocrine system
The system of glands that synthesize and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Chapter 3
Hormones
Proteins manufactured and emitted by endocrine glands that serve as messengers to regulate metabolism and affect growth, mood, and sexual characteristics.
Chapter 3
Pituitary gland
Located in brain. Master-gland that secretes growth and other hormones that influince other endocrine glands.
Chapter 3
Adrenal gland
Produces hormones that regulate "fight or flight" responce, metabolism, and female sexual desire.
Chapter 3
Neuron
A specialized cell that recives, processes and/or transmits info.
Chapter 3
Dendrites
Branched fiber of neurons that recieve incoing signals.
Chapter 3
Soma
Cell body of neuron; contains neucleus and cytoplasm
Chapter 3
Axon
The long fiber that carries the nerve impulse to the terminal buttons from the soma.
Chapter 3
Termial buttons
The bulb-like structures on the tips of the branched end of the axon that is able to stimulate nearby cells.
Chapter 3
Sensory neurons
Neurons that carry messages from sense receptors to central nervious system.
Chapter 3
Motor neurons
neurons that carry impulses from the brain to muscles and glands.
Chapter 3
Interneurons
Brain neurons that relay messages from sensury neurons or other interneurons to motor neurons.
Chapter 3
Glial cells
Cells that join neurons and facilitate neural transmission, remove non-functional neurons, and protect brain from poisons. (Also form insulating myelin sheath for neurons.)
Chapter 3
Excitatory input
Information given to neurons that tells them to fire.
Chapter 3
Inhibitory input
Information given to neurons that tells them to not fire.
Chapter 3
Action potentional
The activated nerve impulse that travels down the axon and causes release of neurotrasmitters into synapse.
Chapter 3
Resting potential
The polarization of cellular fluid in a neuron which creates capabillity to produce an action potential.
Chapter 3
All-or-none law
The rule that the size of the action potential is uneffected by intensities of stimulation that excede the threshold level.
Chapter 3
Refractory period
The rest period during which no new impulses can be activated in a segment of an axon.
Chapter 3
Synapse
The gap between 2 neurons.
Chpater 3
Synaptic transmission
The transmission of impulses from one neuron across the synaptic gap to the ajoining neuron.
Chapter 3
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers from neurons that cross synapse from one neuron to another stimulating the post-synaptic neuron. ??
Chapter 3
Myelin sheath
The insulating layer on some neurons formed by glial cells that increases the transission speed.
Chapter 3
Alzheimer's disease
A degenerative illness, which results in memory loss, that is common in the elderly and is thought to be caused by deterioration of neurons that secrete acetylchlorine.