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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Applied psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
Behaviorism
A theoetical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
Culture
The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations.
Evolutionary psychology
Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a apecies over the course of many generations.
Functionalism
A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Humanism
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Intropection
Careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience.
Natural Selection
principle stating that inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely then alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
Psychoanalytic Theory
A theory developed by freud that attempted to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Theory
A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations.
Structuralism
A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into it's basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related.
Unconscious
According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
Case Study
An in-depth investigation of an individual subject.
Control Group
Subjects in a study who do not recieve the special treatment given to the experimental group.
Experimental group
The subjects in a study who recieve some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
Correlation
The extent to which two variables are related to each other.
Dependent variable
In an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the indepentent variable.
Independent variable
In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.
Experiment
A research method in which the investigater manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
Experimental group
The subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
Hypothesis
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
Naturalistic observation
A descriptive research method in which the resercher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects.
Placebo effect
The fact that subject's expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.
Random assignment
The design of a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition.
Replication
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
Research method
differing approaches to the observation, measurement, and manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies.
Sample
The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study.
Somatic nervous system
The system of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors.
Limbic system
A densely connected network of structures roughly located along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas.
Hypothalamus
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
Peripheral nervous system
All those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
Endocrine system
A group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily funcioning.
Corpus callosum
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebral hemispheres
The right and left halves of the cerebrum.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The system of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
Action potential
A brief change in a neuron's electrical charge.
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
Axon
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
Dendrites
Branch like parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Cerebellum
Structure that coordinates fine muscle movement, balance
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles
Contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memmory
Some ACh receptors stimulated by nicotine
Neurons
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
Cell body
It contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources.
Sympathetic nervous system
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.
Glia
Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide structural support and insulation for neurons.
Cognitive psychology
Focuses on "higher" mental processes, such as memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
A German Professor, who declared that the new psychology should be a science modeled after fields such as physics and chemistry.

Founder of Psychology

Consciousness
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
Abandon the study of consciousness.

Behaviorism
William James (1842-1910)
Trained to medicine but did not like standing up all day.
Influnced by Charles Darwin's theory on natural selection.
Psychology should study functions of consciousness rather than structure.
Stream of consciousness

Functionalism
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Psychoanalytic theory

Unconscious
B.F. Skinner
Behavioral
Carl Rogers(1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Humanistic
G. Stanley Hall
functionalists