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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What ase the characteristics of each compen of memory in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model?
Sensory memory, Short term, Long-term
What are three methods used by psychologist to meassure memory?
recall, recognition , and relearning
What is meant by the statement memory is reconstructive in nature?
memory does not work like a video recorder. People reconstruct memories, piecing them together from a few higlights and using information that may or may not be accurate.
What happens when infromation must be recalled in a particular order?
The serial position effect is the tendency when recalling a list of items to remember the items at the beginning of the list and the item atthe end of the list better than items in the middle
What roles do the hippocampus and hippocampal region play in memory?
The hippocampus itself is involved primarily in the formation of episodic memories the rest of the hippocampal regionis involved in forming semantic memories.
What cause forgetting?
Encoding failure happens when an item is perceived as having been forgotten but in fact was never stored in memory. Information that has not been retrieved from memory for a long time may fade and ultimately disappear entirely.
How can organization, overlearning, spaced practice, and recitation improve memory?
Organization provides retrieval cues for information. over learning can be repeated once without error. Spaced practice allow time for consolidation of new infromation. Recitation of newly learned material is more effective than simply rereading it.
encoding
the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
storage
the process of keeping or maintianing informaton in memory
consolidation
physilogical change in the brain that allows encoded information to be stored in memory
retrieval
the process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
sensory memory
the memory system that holds information from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds
STM
memory system that codes information accordingto sound and holds about seven items for less thatn 30 seconds without rehearsal
displacement
the event that occurs when short-term is filled to capacity and each new, incoming item pushes out an existing item, which is then forgotten
chunking
meory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of informationinto larger units, which are easier to remember
rehearsal
the act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory
elaborative rehearsal
memory strategy that involves relating new information to something that is already known.
LTM
the meomory system with a virturally unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a person's permanent or relatively permanent memories
declarative memory
the subsystem within long-term memory that stores facts, information, and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and them declared or stated; also called explicit memory
episodic memory
the type of declarative memory that records events as the have been sujectively experienced
semantic memory
the type of declarative memory that stores general knowledge or objective facts and information
nondeclarative memory
the subsystem within long-term memory that stores motor skills habits and simple classically conditioned responses also called implicit memory
priming
the phenomenon by which an earlier encounter with a stimulus increases the spped or accuracy of naming the stimulus or related stimuls at a later time
recall
memory task in which a person must produce required information by searchin memory
retrieval cue
any stimulus or bit of information that aids in retrieving particular information from long-term memory
recognition
a memory task in which a person must simpy identify material as familiar or as having been encountered before.
relearning method
measure of memory in which retention is expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned compared witht he time required to learn the material originally,.
saving score
the percentage of time saved when relarning material compared with the amoutn of time required for the original learning
reconstruction
an account of an event that has been pieced together from a few highlights, wusin information that may or may not be accurate
schemas
the integrated frameworks of knowledge and assumptions a person has about people, objects, and events, whic affect how the perosn encodes and recall information
serial position effect
the finding that, for infromation learned in a sequence recall is better for the beginning and endingitems thatn for the middel items in the sequence.
primacy effect
the tendency to recallthe first items in a sequence more readily than the middle items
recency effect
the tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more readily than those in the middle.
hippocampal region
a part of the limbic system whichincludes the hippocampus which includes the hippocampus itself and the underlying cortical areas, involved in the formation of semantic memories
anterograde amnesia
the inability to form long-term memories of events occuring after a brain injury or brain surgery although memories formed before the trauma aare usually intact and short-term memory is unaffeted
encoding failre
a cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long-term memory
decay theory
the oldest theory of forgetting which hold the memories, if not used, fade withitime and ultimately diappear altogether
interference
a cause of forgetting that occurs because information or association stored either before of after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it.
consolidation failure
any disruption in the consolidation process that prevents a long-term memory form forming
retrograde amnesia
a loss of memory for experiences that occured shortly before a loss of consciousness
motivated forgetting
forgetting through suppression or repression in order to protect oneself frommaterial that is painful, frightening, or otherwise unpleasant
repression
completely removing unpleasant memories fromone's consciousness so that one is no longer aware that a painful event occured
amnesia
partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness, brain damage, or some psychological cause
prospective forgetting
not rembering to carry out some intended action
overlearning
practing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error
massed practice
learning in one long practice session without rest periods.