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30 Cards in this Set

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What makes up a nucleotide?
What are a couple examples?
a nitrogenous base + a sugar + a phosphate.
Ex: adenine + phosphate + ribose=(AMP) adenosine monophosphate
What makes up a nucleoside?
What is an example?
A nitrogenous base + a sugar.
Ex: Adenine + Ribose=Adenosine
What does DNA consist of and how is it structured?
DNA consists of 2 long chains of nucleotides consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and a phosphate.
It is in two long chains that twist around each other in a spiral staircase called a double helix.
What are the 2 types of nitrogenous bases?
Purines and pyrimidines.
Which nitrogenous bases are in the purines group?
All good.
Adenosine
Guanine
Which Nitrogenous bases are in the pyrimidine group?
Children U Tidy Up. or
CUT the pyramid.
Cytocine
Uracil
Thymine
Pyramidine
Binding relationship in DNA.
Adenosine-->?
Thymine-->?
Cytosine-->?
Guanine-->?
Adenosine--> Thymine
Thymine-->Adenosine
Cytosine-->Guanine
Guanine-->Cytosine
Binding Relationships in RNA.
Adenosine-->?
Uracil-->
Cytosine-->?
Guanine-->?
Adenosine-->Uracil
Uracil-->Adenosine
Cytosine-->Guanine
Guanine-->Cytosine
What are proteins made up of? What is a protein's role in a cell?
Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.
they are the structural and functional unit of the cell.
How are the sequences of amino acids determined?
By the Genetic Code in DNA to distinguish one protein from another.
What does the genetic code consist of in DNA?
The genetic code consists of a series of nitrogenous bases, the 'recipe'.
What is protein synthesis?
The process of making proteins from the genetic code stored in DNA.
What is RNA and what is it's role in protein synthesis?
Ribonucleic Acid
It carries the assembly instructions for protein synthesis from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and ribosomes where protein is synthesized.
What is mRNA's role? Where is it found?
mRNA recieves the genetic code from DNA in the nucleus and brings it into the cytoplasm.
What is tRNA's role in protein synthesis and where is it found?
tRNA is found free floating in the cytoplasm and each one is specific to certain amino acids. It binds to it's amino acid and delivers it to the ribosomes for protein synthesis (assembly). Once it drops it's amino acid, it returns for another cycle.
What is rRNA used for?
What is a ribosome?
Ribosomal RNA manufactures ribosomes.
Ribosomes are where the amino acids are linked together during protein synthesis.
The synthesis of mRNA, tRNa and rRNA are facilitated by what?
The enzyme RNA polymerase.
Trascription or Translation?
One of the first processes of protein synthesis:
Trascription
Trascription or Translation?
The process by which mRNA is created from the genetic code of DNA:
Trascription
Trascription or Translation?
The double-helix DNA (two strands) inside the nucleus is “unzipped”:
Trascription
Trascription or Translation?
The unzipped strand of DNA is exposed, so the nitrogenous bases (A,G,C,T) can be
transcribed to the mRNA molecule (U,C,G,A):
Trascription
A(denine) in DNA is always translated to _______ in RNA, not ______ :
U(racil)
T(hymine)
The strand of mRNA carrying genetic information travels from...?
The nucleus,(nuclear membrane) to the cytoplasm, toward the ribosomes.
The mRNA molecule is composed of nitrogenous bases(U,C,G,A) that are read in groups of three, what is this called?
A Triplet Codon
What is a nonsense/stop codon?
Another kind of triplet codon which is used as an indicator to determine where one protein ends and another one begins.
Transcription or Translation?
The process by which the genetic code is “translated” into an amino acid sequence:
Translation
Transcription or Translation?
tRNA molecules unite with their specific amino acid:
Translation
Transcription or Translation?
tRNA molecules transport and deliver their specific amino acids to the ribosomes,
where the mRNA molecules are waiting:
Translation
Transcription or Translation?
Each triplet codon on the mRNA molecule has a complementary codon called an anticodon on the tRNA molecule:
Translation
Transcription or Translation?
When the mRNA codon complements the tRNA anticodon, the tRNA molecule places

its particular amino acid in that position. Then, the (empty) tRNA molecules return to the cytoplasm to link up with new molecules of their specific amino acids;
Translation