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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Piece of nucleic acids made up of
5-carbon sugar
a phosphate group
and a nitrogenous base
In DNA, Bonding Pair A bonds with
In DNA, Bonding Pair G bonds with
Chromatin =
Form of DNA in the nucleus; Spread out form of DNA – present when the cell has a nucleus
Histone =
Globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
Replication =
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA Polymerase =
enzyme that “proofreads” new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA
Gene =
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Messenger RNA (mRNA) =
RNA molecule that carries Copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)=
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
Tranfer RNA (tRNA)=
Type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
Transciption =
Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
RNA Polymerase =
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
Codon =
Three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Translation =
Decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Anti-codon =
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Mutation =
Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Point Mutation =
Mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
Frame Mutation =
Mutation that shifts the “reading” frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide