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34 Cards in this Set

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Drug administration phase
The drug administration phase describes the method by which a drug dose is made available to the body
Drug Dose form
Physical state of the drug in association with non-drug compenents.
Route of administration
POrtal or entry for the drug into the body
Enteral Drug route
Drugs intended to be absorbed in the GI tract
Parenteral
Intravenous, intramuscular, subcutanously
Transdermal
Absorbed percutanously
Devices for inhaled administration of drugs
1_vaporizer
2)Atomizer
3)Nebulizer, small or large
4)Metered dose inhaler, with/without spacer
5)Dry Powder inhaler
6)Ultrasonic nebulizer
Pharmacokinetic Phase
Pharmacokinetic Phase of drug action describes the time course and deposition of a drug in the body, based on its absorption, metabolism, and elimination
Definition of Absorption
1)The process by which a drug gets introduced to the body in a way it can be distributed
2)Involves the ability (or inability) of a drug to cross different barriers (cell membranes, lipid membranes, etc).
Distribution
1)Process by which a drug is transported to its sites of action, eliminated, and stored
Distribution Continued
1)Intended distribution may be systemic or local
2)To be effective, a drug must deliver a high enough concentration at an intended site
Metabolism of a drug
Complex Processes that cause the biotransformation or metabolism of a drug
Where is the main site of drug metabolism
In the liver
Elimination phase
1)Primary site for the excretion of drugs is the kidneys
2)Maintenance dose-dose needed to equal the rate of elimination to maintain a steady concentration of the drug
Critical threshold
The minimum of drug concentration needed for a therapeutic effect
L/T ratio
Lung availability versus total systemic availability
Factors increasing the L/T ratio with inhaled drugs
1)Efficient delivery devices
2)Inhaled drugs with a high first pass metabolism
3)Use of a resovoir device
Pharmacodynamic phase
Describes the mechanisms of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effects on the body
Structure/Activity relations in the pharmacodynamic phase
Relationship between a drug's chemical structure and its clinical effect or activity
Nature and type of drug receptors
1)Most receptors are proteins or polypeptides whose shape and electric charge provide a match to the drug's corresponding shape and charge.
2)Receptor proteins can be found on the cell's surface and within the cell
3)Resultant complex molecular mechanism translates, or, even better, tranduces a signal into an intracellular sequence that controls cell function
Types of transmembrane signalling
1)Lipid soluble drugs cross the cell membranes and act on intracellular receptors
2)Drug attaches to an extracellular portion of a protein receptor which projects into the cell's protoplasm
3)Ion channels
4)Second messenger system
G protein signalling
Drug attaches to a transmembrane receptor that is coupled to an intracellular enzyme by a g protein
Examples of drugs that use g-protein signalling
Beta-adrenergic agents, and acetycholine at parasympathetic nerve endings
Dose-response relations
1)Response of a drug is proportional to the drug concentration, As drug concentration increases, the numbers of receptors increase, and the drug effect also increases up to a maximal point
ED 50
The dose that produces 50 percent of teh maximal effect
Agonist
Drug or chemical that binds to a corresponding receptor (has affinity)and initiates an cellular response (has efficacy)
Antagonist
Drug or chemical that is able to bind to a receptor, but causes no response.
ED50 gives information about___
Potency. Two drugs could have differential maixmal responses, but similar potency.
ED 50 inflection point
At the steepest part of the curve(the ED50), minor changes in the dose have the greatest effect.
Corticosteriods___
Change transcription of DNA.
Steroids____
Reduce inflammation, work on the innermost layer of the epithelial cells
Beta one receptors
Are in the heart
First Pass effect
The meds that get absorbed in the stomach. Will cause a systemic effect.
Fours phases of the pharmacokinetic phase
1)Absorption
2)Metabolism
3)Elimination
4)Distribution