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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
vinho de mesa
table wine
vinho regional
equivalent to vin de pays
indicacao de proveniencia regulamentada
stepping stone to doc
denominacao de origem controlada
What are portugals soil types
granite schist and sand
What is the main soil type in vinho verde
what grape variatals is vinho verde whites made from
alvarinho is best quality
louriero and trajadura are responsible for bulk production
What does quinta mean?
wine farm
Which 5 varietals contribute to making the best ports
touriga nacional, tinta roriz (tempernillo), touriga francesa, tinta barroca, and tinto cao
can the name port be used outside potugal?
yes, but name is protected in europe
why do they still foot tread grapes in port production
this is rhe best way to extract the most color from the skins, since ports fermentation is so short
Explain lbv
late bottle vintage is kept in barrel for 4 to 6 years and bottled once it has rid itself of crust and sediment. Not the quality of vintage but meant to be drank way before
tawny port
blended port aged for long periods best usually labeled around 20 years.
other permitted labeling is 10, 30, and over 40
ruby ports
ports aged for short periods in wood
ofthen fruity and fiery
what is white port
made in the same way as red, but uses white varetals
what Are levadas
irrigation canals used to supply water from the peaks to the crops in madeira
what american city was famous foe its madeira meechants and connoisseurs
savannah georgia
what is an estufa
hot stores where madeira is baked for at least 3 months at 120degrees
what are the 4 grape varietals of madeia in order of sweetness
malvasia (malmsey), bual(very rare, a little smoky but still a dessert wine) verdelho(most planted white grape) and sercial, (better as a appretif is astringent when young but more substancial then fino)
Adega means?
Colheita means?
Garrafado na Origem means?
estate bottled
Branco means?
Doce means?
Garrafeira means?
a vintage-dated wine with extra 0.5 % abv above min; reds need 3 yrs ageing including 1 in bottle, whites and roses 1 year incl. 6 in bottle; can be single or multi-region blend
Maduro means?
old or mature
Rosado means?
rose or pink
Seco means?
Tinto means?
Verde means?
Vinha means?
4 major rivers that start in Spain cross through Portugal and empty into the Atlantic
Tinta Roriz is also called
(called Aragonês in the south)
The Tempranillo of Spain
Vinho Verde DOC
Important DOC in the Minho region
Hot summers – wet winters
Mostly granite soils
Traditionally an area of polyculture – forbidden to plant whole fields with grapes
60,000 + small holders
Vineyards are now more systematically planted
Growers use either:
Cruzeta – high-trained, spur-pruned double cordon
Barra – spur-pruned, single cordon
Grapes are generally harvested with a potential alcohol level of between 8.5% - 11.5% and with high levels of natural acidity
Modern vinification – stainless steel or tile-lined concrete vats
Most wines have a small amount of carbon dioxide injected into them at the time of bottling
“Verde” refers to youth or “greeness” of the wine
½ of the production is red
We never see it here …….
Because it’s vile……..
White is made from same grapes as for Rias Baixas
Alvarinho makes the best, most complex wines
There are single quinta whites and reds
Loureiro and Trajadura are responsible for the bulk of production
Crisp, delicious and gulpable
Douro DOC for dry wines
The Duero river of Spain
Famous area due to the production Port
Makes as much table wine as fortified wine
Sometimes as much as 60% of the total Douro production
The dry wines have traditionally not been high quality
improved drastically over past 10 years
Very difficult area to cultivate
Steep mostly schist soils with some granite outcroppings
Viticultural practices will be looked at later – Port class
Grape varieties are the same as for Port
Traditionally the best grapes would go into the production of Port
And the best schistous soils are reserved for Port
Table wines get the granite terroir
Some experimentation with single variety wines
Barca Velha – long been considered one of Portugal’s finest table wines
Many of the Port producers are making top quality reds
Producers to look for:
Ferrierinha - Barca Velha & Reserva Especial
Quinto do Crasto
Sogrape – Reserva
Bright Brothers
Dão DOC for dry wines
One of the longest established regions
Mostly granite soils – mostly red wines
20 % of the blend must be Touriga Nacional
Often spent too much time in wood – led to dried out, fruitless wines
Quality has improved
White is made from Encruzado
Jose Maria da Fonseca is a top producer
Bairrada DOC
Name is derived from the Portuguese word for clay – “bairro”
Known for full-bodied reds made from…..
Minimum is 50% - often higher
85% of production is red
White wine production is increasing, rose too
Mostly made from Maria Gomes….which is of course a synonym for the Fernão Pires grape…..
Encruzado also used
Good producers: Jose Maria da Fonseca, Luis Pato, Sorgape
Colares DOC
Located on the Atlantic coast north of Lisbon
Temperate maritime climate
Vines are sometimes protected from winds by bamboo or plastic screens or planted deep in trenches in sand dunes
Interesting reds from the Ramisco grape grown in sandy, phylloxera-free soils
Historically important region with ultra-traditional wines …. Our pal Tom thinks they should move with the times ….
Then they could be world-class …..
Carcavelos DOC
Sweet fortified wines famous since the 1700’s
Grapes are Boal, Arinto, Galego Dourado, Negra Mole, Trincadeira, Torneiro
Bucelas DOC
Located about 25km north of Lisbon
Loamy soils are a mixture of clay and limestone
Warm, maritime climate
White wine only area
Arinto is the main quality grape
Dry white wines with high acidity
According to Tom:
‘…could be an international superstar’
Ribatejo VR
Huge region that covers the broad valley of the Tagus (Tejo) river north east of Lisbon
Most of the production is bottled under the Vinho Regional designation
Vinho Regional Ribatejano
Varied soils, rich alluvial, large production
Maritime climate around the Tagus estuary
Warmer and drier inland
Fernao Pires is the dominant white grape
Periquita is the dominant red grape
International varieties are only allowed for IPR wines
Alentejo VR
The largest region in Portugal
Mostly granite soils with some limestone and clay
The area is know for supple red wines
The entire Alentejo in a VR
Several sub-regions have DOC status:
Portalegre, Borba, Redondo, Evora, Reguengos, Vidigueira, Granja-Amarelaja and Moura
Grapes include Aragonez, Periquita, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Carignan
Some spectacular new wave wines to watch for
Also an important cork tree region
Palmela DOC (IPR)
Palmela is the result of the fusion of two former IPR areas Palmela and Arrabida
Located on the Setubal Peninsula near the Atlantic coast
Sandy soils on the plains
Limestone in the Arrabida hills
Warm maritime climate – mild winters
Periquita is the dominant red grape
Fernao Pires the dominant white grape
Fabulous off-dry Muscats from Joao Pires
Terre Do Sado VR
Savvy new appellation for innovative wines from large region
Includes some terrific wines like the off-dry muscats from Joao Pires and Periquita
If red: at least 50% Aragonez, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Moscatel Roxo, Periquita, Tinta Amarela and Touriga Nacional, plus up to 50% of all the usual other red suspects
If white: at least 50% Arinto, Chard, Fernao Pires, Malvasia Fina, Muscat d’Alexandrie and Roupeiro, plus tp to 50% all the usual white suspects plus Sauvignon and Ugni Blanc!
Tappet-Hen means?
Tappet-Hen: Bottle size equivalent to 3 standard bottles (2.273 liters). Aka ‘Mary-Jean’.
explaine port Maturation
• First Stage: From harvest to the end of winter. First tasting and first selection.
• Second Stage: Wood or stainless steel. Second tasting before next harvest.
• Third Stage: Vintage versus non-vintage. Further aging and determination of style.
In the spring following fortification, Port is shipped up the Douro to the Port Lodges in Oporto (Vila Nova de Gaia), traditionally by Barcos Rabelos but now usually by trucks. The wine is then aged in Pipes (a 550-liter cask, twice the size of a barrique).
explain port Vinification (4 methods)
• Maximum and speedy extraction of color and tannin is important. There are four main vinification methods.
o Traditional lagares: Concrete troughs where grapes are tread with human feet.
o Autovinifiers: Pumping-over system based on gas, pressure, and gravity.
o Remontagem: Pumping over with pumps.
o Robotic lagares:
• After maceration, the juice is run off, which is now 4%-8% alcohol. Aguardente, a 77% alcohol grape-only spirit, is added to kill yeast and arrest fermentation. Usually one part Aguardente to four parts wine. Since 1990, shippers have a choice of spirit, which can come from anywhere in the EU. Afterwards, press wine is added to the mix.
• Lagares: Open troughs for treading grapes.
port Varietal(s): 48 authorized varieties, but there are 5 main ones.
• Touriga Nacional: Character, backbone. Deep color and fruit, high tannins. Low yielding, and ripens mid-season.
• Tinta Roriz: Spain’s Tempranillo grape, this gives color, suppleness, and length. Good in cooler years, this grape also ripens mid-season.
• Touriga Francesca/Franca: Aromatics, flowery, and fruity. Ripens late in the season.
• Tinta Barroca: Full-bodied, high in sugar and tannin. Ripens early in the season.
• Tinta Cão: Finesse and structure. Extremely low yields. Ripens mid-season.
• Malvasia:
• Moscatel:
what is the Benefício Grading System
: Similar to Champagne’s system. Vineyards are classified from A to E, based on a points system. Points are awarded for the following variables: Altitude, yield, soil, aspect, vine variety and age, slope, training system, locality, and vine density. This classification determines the volume of Port allowed to be produced and the price paid for it.
60° gradient slopes are not uncommon in upper Douro. Very difficult to cultivate. Most vineyards are pruned using the Guyot method, and some use single cordon-trained vines. There are several planting systems used:
• Socalcos: Retaining walls.
• Patamares: Contoured packed earth.
• Vinha ao Alto: Wire training up hillsides
explain climate of the upper Douro
Climate: Continental. There is a Rainshadow Effect from the wetter Vinho Verde region by the Sierra di Marão Mountain Range. Vineyard area lies in the upper Douro, with a very hot and dry summer, up to 102°F, and cold winters. Rain falls mainly in spring. Climate gets warmer further inland. Generally hot every year, but some variation
Wood-Aged Styles: Ready to drink upon release
• White Port (dry)
• Ruby Port
• Vintage Character
• Tawny
• Tawny with indication of age
• Colheita
Wood-Aged Styles: Ready to drink upon release
• White Port (dry) Aged 2-3 years before release.
• Ruby Port 3-6 years aging.
• Vintage Character Ruby from several blended vintages, aged 5 years.
• LBV Specific (undeclared) vintage, 4-6 years cask aging.
• Tawny Blend of years (aged 5-7 years).
• Tawny with indication of age Only 10, 20, 30, or 40 years – average, not minimum, age of wines in bottle.
• Colheita Vintage Tawny, minimum 8 years in cask.
Climate: Tropical climate with no real extremes.
Soil Type(s): Fertile, volcanic soils with a high potash content.
Practices and Special Issues: Very mountainous terrain. Levadas channel rainfall to farms. Rot can be an issue, due to the tropical climate.
Varietal(s): Hybrids are still grown, but banned for use in Madeira production. There are four important quality grapes, one important low quality grape and several minor grape varieties. For the four important varieties, the use of that grape on the label also indicates sweetness level of the wine.
• Sercial: Driest style.
• Verdelho: Medium-dry style.
• Bual: Rich and medium-sweet.
• Malmsey: Sweetest style (grape is aka Malvasia).
• Tinta Negra Mole: Most widely-planted variety – comprises about 65% of vineyard area.
• Terrantez and Bastardo are also planted.
• Madeira Aging 4 levels
Individual cask or solera aging.
o Reserve: More than 5 years old.
o Special Reserve: More than 10 years old.
o Extra Reserve: More than 15 years old.
o Vintage: From one of the main four grapes, 20 years in cask and another 2 in bottle.
Estufagem means?
Method of ‘baking wines’. Lesser quality wines over a shorter time with artificial heat. Higher quality wines over a longer time in naturally hot rooms.
Vineyard area lies in the Upper Douro
Divided into 3 subzones
Baixo (lower) Corgo
Coolest and wettest area giving lighter, less full-bodied wines
Wines are rarely used in top quality Ports
Mostly ruby and simple tawny Ports
Cima (higher) Corgo
Lower rainfall and typically a few degrees warmer
All the major houses own vineyards (quintas) here
Most of the higher quality wines come from here
Douro Superior
Still considered pioneer country
Driest, hottest part of the region
The flatter land close to the Spanish border is generating recent interest
Has potential for high quality Port production
Schist is?
Schist is a metaporphic rock
contains LAMILLER minerals like mica, chlorite, talc, graphite, quartz
Schist is foliated or laminated
individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs
Most schists derive from clays and muds which have passed through a series of metamorphic processes involving the production of shales and slates
Formed by dynamic high-temperature, high-pressure metamorphism that involves extreme strain.
Douro schistous soils are quite acidic, low in pH and nutrient deficient
Lime is often used to correct pH
In the Douro the schist soils are often arranged perpendicularly
Water can easily seep between the layers
Soils also erode more readily if there is winter freeze
Eroding rock provides a limitless, constant and measured source of basic and trace nutrients
the Benefício system uses what types of thing to rate the wine
Altitude: up to 150 m above sea level gets 150 points
Higher altitudes score less
Productivity: 120 points for a vineyard producing less that 600 litres of wine per 1,000 vines
….more deductions for more wine
Nature of the land: 100 points for schistous soils …. –500 points for granite
Locality: 84 defined sectors get points … highest scores for vineyards in Cima Corgo
Vine Training: 100 points for traditional low trained vines
Grape varieties: classified into five categories (very good, good, regular, mediocre and bad
Slope: up to 105 points for slopes in excess of 35 degrees
Aspect: more points for south-facing vineyards
Density of planting: deductions for densely planted vines (more than 6,900 per ha) and up to 50 points for wider spacing (less than 5,700 per ha)
Soil and its degree of stoniness: more stones, more points
Age of vines: vineyards with vines over 25 years old get 50 points; vines that are 4-5 years old get 0
Shelter: 60 points for sheltered vineyards, 0 points for unprotected
Maximum score is 1680 points
1200 gets and A rating
The higher the rating the more Port you are entitled to make
Determines volume of Port allowed to be produced and price paid for it
See page 336 of your textbook
Rule of lei dos dois terços
The law of two thirds restricts any Port shipper from selling more than a third of their stock in one year
The best Madeira wines have traditionally been named after the 4 main white grapes even if the wine wasn’t made from it:
If the variety is used on the label it must contain 85%
Sercial – driest style
Verdelho – medium-dry style
Bual – rich and medium-sweet
Malmsey – Malvasia – sweetest style
Today most are labeled according to age
3, 5, 10 and 15 years old
Oidium and Phylloxera devastated vineyards in 1850’s
Many hybrids are still grown but banned for use in Madeira production
Tinta Negra Mole – most widely planted variety
Terrantez – rarely seen
Bastardo – not common
Sweetness has been tied to the varieties:
Sercial – 8-25 g/l
Verdelho – 25-40 g/l
Bual – 40-60 g/l
Malmsey – 60-120 g/l
Setubal DOC
70% Moscatel (Muscat of Alexandria) – lightly fortified in Port method