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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
civil rights
legal or moral claims that citizens are entitled to make upon government
equal protection clause
provision of the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteeing citizens “the equal protection of the laws”. This clause has served as the basis for the civil rights of African Americans, women, and other groups
use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion
"seperate but equal" rule
doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still be equal
Brown v. Board of Education
the 1954 Supreme Court decision that struck fown the “separate but equal” doctrine as fundamentally unequal. This case eliminated state power to use race as criterion of discrimination in law and provided the national government with the power to intervene by exercising strict regulatory policies against discriminatory actions
strict scrutiny
test, used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights, which places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional
de jure
literally, “by law”; legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the South before the 1960s
de facto
literally, “by fact”; practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the United States today
appointment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party
a practice in which banks refuse to make loans to people living in certain geographic locations
intermediate scrutiny
test, used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases, which places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional
affirmative action
government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of these groups with access to educational and employment strategies