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26 Cards in this Set

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Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee certain rights and liberties to the people
bill of attainder
laws that decree a person guilty of a crime without a trial
ex post facto laws
laws that declare an action to be illegal after it has been committed
habeas corpus
a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention
civil liberties
areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering
substantive liberties
restraints on what the government shall and shall not have the power to do
procedural liberties
restraints on how the government is supposed to act; for example, citizens are guaranteed the due process of law
due process of law
the right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national or state governments
civil rights
legal or moral claims that citizens are entitles to make upon the government
selective incorporation
the process by which different protections in the Bill of Rights were incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment, thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national governments
establishment clause
the First Amendment clause that says that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This law means that a “wall of separation” exists between church and state
lemon test
a rule articulated in Lemon v. Kurtzman that government action toward religion is permissible if it is secular in purpose, does not lead to “excessive entanglement” with religion, and neither promotes nor inhibits the practice of religion
free exercise clause
the First Amendment clause that protects a citizen’s right to believe and practice whatever religion he or she chooses
strict scrutiny
test, used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights, which places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional
"clear and present danger"
test- test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capability to present a “clear and present danger” to society
speech plus
speech accompanied by conduct such as sit-ins, picketing, and demonstrations; protection of this for of speech under the First Amendment is conditional, and restrictions imposed by state or local authorities are acceptable if properly balanced by considerations of public order
prior restraint
an effort by a governmental agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship. In the United States, the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances
libel
a written statement made in “reckless disregard of the truth” that is considered damaging to a victim because it is “malicious, scandalous, and defamatory”
slander
an oral statement, made in “reckless disregard of the truth,” which is considered damaging to the victim because it is “malicious, scandalous, and defamatory”
fighting words
speech that directly incited damaging conduct
exclusionary rule
the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment
grand jury
jury that determines whether sufficient evidence is available to justify a trial; grand juries do not rule on the accused’s guilt or innocence
double jeopardy
the Fifth Amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime
Miranda rule
the requirement, articulated by the Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona, that persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to remain silent and to have the benefit of legal counsel
eminent domain
the right of government to take private property for public use
right to privacy
the right to be let alone, which has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to entail free access to birth control and abortions