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36 Cards in this Set

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What is Project Human Resource Management?
- The processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.
- The team is comprised of the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project.
- The involvement of project team members in planning processes can be beneficial, both adding their expertise, and fostering their commitment to the project.
Describe the process 9.1 Develop Human Resource Plan
- Identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, and reporting relationships, as well as creating a Staffing Management Plan.
What are the INPUTS of the process - Develop Human Resource Plan?
1. Activity resource requirements, for human resources from the Estimated Activity Resources process
2. Enterprise Environmental Factors, including organizational culture and structure, existing human resources, personnel administration policies, and marketplace conditions.
3. Organizational Process Assets, including standard processes, policies, and role descriptions, templates and checklists, and historical information.
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Develop Human Resource Plan?
1. Organization charts and position descriptions
2. Networking
3. Organizational theory
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Develop Human Resource Plan?
1. Human Resource Plan
Describe the Enterprise Environmental Factors that are inputs to developing the Human Resource Plan?
- Organizational culture and structure interactions
- Influenced by political factors
Four environmental areas:
- Organization (Different Organizational Units)
- Technical (Different Technical Disciplines)
- Logistical (Different Locations)
- Interpersonal (Different Individuals)
What Organizational Process Assets are inputs to developing the Human Resource Plan?
Templates
- Organizational charts
- Position descriptions
- Project performance appraisals
- Etc., Usually available from HR department or previous projects

Checklists
- Project roles and responsibilities
- Team ground rules
- Health, safety, and Environmental
- Compliance
Describe the tools and technique - organization charts and position descriptions.
Format chosen is appropriate to the project and organization practice. Objective is to ensure that each work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities. Formats can be hierarchical, matrix, or text.

- Hierarchical, like a traditional organization chart showing reporting relationships
- Matrix, particularly a responsibility assignment matrix showing the connection between work packages and team members
- Text - based to describe detailed responsibilities of team members. an example would be a position description
Describe the Responsibility Assignment Matrix - RACI Format
The RAM establishes assignments for each WBS element/task. RACI shows level of responsibility for groups and/or individuals. It graphically links the work to be done to those doing it.

R - Responsible
A - Accountable
C - Contributing
I - Informed
Describe the tools and technique - networking
Networking, formal and informal interactions with others in the organization, industry, or profession. It is a constructive way to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of staffing management options. HR networking activities include correspondence, lunches, meetings, etc.
Describe the output - Human Resource Plan
The Human Resource Plan is part of the project management plan and guides the definition, staffing, management, control, and eventual release of people in the project team. It includes three main components:
- Roles and responsibilities, including role, authority, responsibility, and competency
- Project organization charts, showing the reporting relationships in the team
- Staff management plan, describes when and how people requirements will be met.
Describe the Staff Management Plan
A Staffing Management Plan describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. It will be as formal as the situation requires. It will direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions. It is part of the human resources plan, which in tern is part of the project management plan.

Considers:
- Staff acquisition
- Resource calendars (availability)
- Staff release plan
- Training needs
- Recognition and rewards
- Compliance with regulations, union contracts, policies
- Safety (AKA Health, Safety, and Environmental)
Describe the process 9.2 Acquire Project Team
Obtaining the human resources (team) needed to complete the project
- The project management team may or may not have control over team member selection, for various resources.
- Important to consider that:
-- PM team must negotiate effectively with others to get team
-- Failure to get the necessary team will likely affect project achievement of objectives
-- If the resources are not available due to constraints, then other alternatives may have to be considered, which may increase risk, training needs, etc.
What are the INPUTS of the process - Acquire Project Team?
1. Project management plan, which contains the roles and responsibilities, organization charts, and the staffing management plan.
2. Enterprise environmental factors, including
- Existing information for human resources such as who is available, competency, prior experience, cost, and their interest in the project
- Personnel administration policies (e.g. outsourcing)
- Organization structure
- Locations
3. Organization process assets, including standard policies, processes, and procedures
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Acquire Project Team?
1. Pre-assignment, when team members are selected in advance.
2. Negotiation: staff assignments are negotiated on many projects, perhaps with functional managers, or with other project teams to share scarce or specialized staff, or with external organizations. The ability to influence others and politics play a role in this effort.
3. Acquisition, when resources must be brought in from outside sources.
4. Virtual teams, are groups of people with shared goal, who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face.
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Acquire Project Team?
1. Project staff assignments
2. Resource calendars, documenting when each team member can work on the project
3. Project management plan updates, including the human resources plan
Describe the tools and technique - virtual teams.
It is possible to:
- Form teams from same company located in widespread geographical areas
- Add special expertise from other geographical areas
- Incorporate employees who work from home offices
- Incorporate workers from different shifts
- Include those with mobility limitations or disabilities
- Perform projects that would not have been feasible if they had to bear travel expenses

Virtual teams require special attention to planning for communications. While electronic means help, they also suffer some limitations that can be important. Remember, face-to-face is best
Describe the output - Project staff assignments
Project STaff assignments - Documentation of the assignments can include a project team directory, and the addition of personnel names to other HR project doucuments.

Project team directory
- Project team and other stakeholders
- Alphabetical and Organization order
- Name, Role title, phone, email, postal address, emergency contacts, etc.
Describe the process - 9.3 Develop Project Team
Improves the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance. Project managers should create an environment that facilitates teamwork, and provides motivation for the team through challenges and opportunities, timely feedback, reward and recognition, and other support as needed. This requires the use of open and effective communication, developing trust among team members, managing conflict constructively, and encouraging collaborative problem-solving and decision making.

Project management in one sense is the management of people to complete a project, and people skills are paramount.
What are the objectives of team development?
- Seek to improve knowledge and skills of team members, to increase their ability to effectively complete project deliverables
- Foster feelings of trust and agreement among team members to maintain team morale and productivity
- Create a positive team culture to improve both individual and team performance, spirit, and cooperation

A good team can achieve amazing results in spite of tremendous challenges. A bad team is defeated by the challenges.
What should you always remember when it comes to building the project team and softening interfaces?
When surrounded by - and trying to integrate - RAM, WBS, network diagrams, Gantt charts, effort distributions, and budgets, remember that PROJECTS ARE ULTIMATELY FOR AND ABOUT PEOPLE! Success, i.e., meeting objectives, depends ultimately on the cooperation of all the interested parties and on the hard work of project personnel. Integrating the numbers and people is the height of professional project management.
What are the INPUTS of the process - Develop Project Team?
1. Project staff assignments, with the list of team members
2. Project management plan, including the human resource plan
3. Resource calendars, identifying time when team members can participate in team development activities.
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Develop Project Team?
1. Interpersonal skills, or "soft skills". Understand the sentiments of the team, anticipate their actions, acknowledge their concerns, follow up on their issues.
2. Training, to address any deficit in technical or soft skills.
3. Team-building activities, which can take m any forms. The objective is to get team members to work together effectively.
4. Ground rules, which explicitly communicate acceptable behavior. This can help head off unpleasant incidents and conflict.
5. Co-location, which takes advantage of the full bandwidth of face-to-face communication, and also leads to much more communication than might happen otherwise. This can include strategies like team "war rooms". Builds the "tight matrix"
6. Recognition and rewards
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Develop Project Team?
1. Team performance assessments, which should indicate improved team performance reflected in meeting project objectives. If team performance assessments do not show that we are meeting our performance goals, we might need to do additional training, coaching, mentoring, assistance, or other changes to improve team results.
2. Enterprise environmental factors updates, including personnel administration for employee training records and skill assessments.
In what ways can project team training be focused?
Team focused - Enhancing the ability of the team to function as a team

Individual focused - Enhancing the ability of stakeholders to contribute as individuals.
What are the stages of Team Development?
1. Forming - Team members are polite, guarded, and businesslike; Leaders should emphasize directive behavior.
2. Storming - Team members confront each other, struggle for control and either become entrenched or opt out. Leaders should display directive and supportive behavior.
3. Norming - Team members confront issues instead of people, establish procedures collectively and become team oriented. Leaders must provide high support and low direction.
4. Performing - Team members settle down to opt and productive effort. Leaders must be willing to delegate and provide low direction and low support.
5. adjourning - Team completes the work and moves on.

These stages reflect the team's "maturity"
What are examples of team building exercises?
- Team milestone races
- Social events, like ice-cream cones in the conference room, bowling night, or anything that gives the team a chance to interact socially
- Virtual teams can make it necessary to these activities in ways that permit remote interaction (Chats, twitter, etc)
- The big party at the project's end!
Describe the tools and technique - Recognition and Reward.
Recognition and Rewards: Award decisions made during the process of managing the team through performance appraisals.

To be effective, such systems must make the link between behavior and reward clear, explicit, and achievable. Only desirable behaviors should be rewarded. Remember, we want the TEAM to succeed, so reward the TEAM.
Define an effective project team.
An effect team:
- Shares a common goal - each member is necessary to achieve the goal
- Strives to get a common job done
- Enjoys working together and helping on another
- Has commitment to achieve organization's goals and objectives by accomplishing their portion of the project
- Has diverse backgrounds and skills yet concentrates on a common effort
- Has great loyalty to the project
- Attains team spirit and high moral.
What are some constructive team roles?
- Initiators - "Let's do this..."
- Information Seekers - "Do we have better information?"
- Information Givers ' "My experience is..."
- Encouragers - "That helped us a..."
- Clarifiers - "I think we are saying..."
- Harmonizers - "I think we are all saying the same thinkg."
- Summarizers - "I think we all agree that..."
- Gate Keeper - helps others participate. "We haven't heard from..."
- Devils Advocate - Brings up alternate viewpoints - Can be constructive or destructive.
What are some destructive team roles?
- The Aggressor - Criticizes and deflates status of others
- The Blocker - Rejects the views of others
- The Withdrawer - Holds back and will not participate
- Recognition Seeker - Seeks attention by monopolizing discussions.
- Topic Jumper - Continually changes the subject.
- Dominator - Tries to take over discussion
- Devil's Advocate Brings up alternate viewpoints - can be constructive or destructive
Describe the process - 9.4 Manage Project Team
Involves:
- Tracking team member performance
- Providing feedback
- Resolving issues
- Managing changes to optimize project performance

PM Team observes team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues, and appraises team member performance.

Complicated when team members are accountable to both a functional manager and the project manager within a matrix organization
- Effective management of this dual reporting relationship is often a critical success factor for the project, and is generally the responsibility of the project manager.
What are the INPUTS of the process - Manage Project Team?
1. Project staff assignments
2. Project management plan, including the human resource plan
3. Team performance assessments
4. Performance reports, from the Report Performance process, to document current status.
5. Organizational process assets, including certificates of appreciation, newsletters, websites, bonus structures, corporate apparel, and other organizational perks
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Manage Project Team?
1. Observation and conversation - Used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members. "Management by walking around"
2. Project performance appraisals of individual team members
3. Conflict management
4. Issue log, to track issues and document responsibilities for resolving specific issues by a target date
5 Interpersonal skills
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Manage Project Team?
1. Enterprise environmental factors updates, including input to organizational performance appraisals, and personnel skill updates
2. Organizational process assets updates, including historical information and lessons learned, templates, and organizational standard processes.
3. Change requests (to Perform Integrated Change Control) to i implement staffing changes and reflect the effort on baselines
4. Project management plan updates including the staffing management plan.
What Interpersonal skills are useful for managing the project team?
- Leadership
- Influencing, particularly when the project manager's authority over team members is limited.
- Effective decision making, including negotiation and influencing the organization:
-- Focus on goals to be served
-- Follow a process
-- Study the environmental factors
-- Develop personal qualities of the team members
-- Stimulate team creativity
-- Manage opportunity and risk