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34 Cards in this Set

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What is Project Communications Management?
- Includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information.
- Project managers report that they spend 90% of their time communicating, which is not surprising since they are achieving results through the effort of others
- Communication is the glue that connects the project stakeholders
Describe the process 10.1 Identify Stakeholders.
- This is the process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, and impact on project success.
- Remember that stakeholders can have either a positive or negative influence on a project; both are important to identify.
Why should you identify stakeholders early?
- It is critical to identify stakeholders as early as possible in the project, because each stakeholder is a potential source of project requirements
- Failure to identify a stakeholder may well lead to so-called "scope creep" that in this case is really a failure to properly identify all requirements in the beginning
- We also need a strategy for dealing with each stakeholder
What are the INPUTS of the process - Identify Stakeholders?
1. Project charter, which as an initial list of stakeholders
2. Procurement documents, which indicate parties to a contract that become stakeholders
3. Enterprise environmental factors, including organizational culture and structure, and any relevant governmental or industry standards
4. Organizational process assets, including stakeholder register templates, and historical information, including lessons learned.
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Identify Stakeholders?
1. Stakeholder analysis
2. Expert judgement
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Identify Stakeholders?
1. Stakeholder register
2. Stakeholder management strategy
Describe Stakeholder Analysis.
- Identify all potential stakeholders and relevant information about them, such as their roles, departments, interests, knowledge levels, expectations, and influence levels. Key stakeholders are those in decision making or management roles. Also identify other stakeholders during interviews with stakeholders.
- Identify the potential project impact or support the stakeholder could provide, classifying them to help define an approach strategy. Prioritize them.
- Assess how kep stakeholders are going to react or respond to various project situations and issues, to plan how to influence them to enhance their support and mitigate their negative impact.
Describe Stakeholder Impact Analysis
Classification models include power/interest grid, power/influence grid, influence/impact grid. Below is an example power/interest grid, with power on the Y-axis and interest on the X-axis. Each stakeholder is position within a quadrant.

Keep Satisfied | Manage Closely
---------------------------------------------------------------
Monitor (min effort) | Keep Informed

A salience model describes classes of stakeholders based on their power, urgency, and legitimacy, driving the strategy for dealing with the stakeholder.
Describe the Stakeholder Register
The Stakeholder Register contains all the details related to identified stakeholders, including:
- Identification, such as name, position, role, contact information
- Assessment, such as major requirements, main expectations, potential influence on the project and in what phase
- Classification, such as internal or external, attitude toward project (support, neutral, resister)
Describe the Stakeholder Management Strategy
The Stakeholder management strategy is the approach to be used to increase support and minimize resistance, including:
- Who can significantly impact the project
- Desired level of participation in the project
- Stakeholder groups, and their management, as groups

A common format for this output is a matrix or spreadsheet outlining the stakeholder, his interest, assessment of impact, and potential strategies
Describe the process 10.2 Plan Communications
- Determining the information needs and communication approach of the stakeholders (Who needs what information, When they will need it, How it will be given to them, and by whom)
- Identifying the informational needs of stakeholders and determining a suitable means of meeting those needs is an important factor for project success
- Tightly linked with enterprise environmental factors and organizational influences such as project's organizational structure will have a major effect on project communication requirements.
What are the INPUTS of the process - Plan Communications?
1. Stakeholder register, output of Identify Stakeholders process
2. Stakeholder management strategy, output of Identify stakeholders process
3. Enterprise environmental factors (all of them)
4. Organizational process assets, especially historical information and lessons learned.
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Plan Communications?
1. Communications requirements analysis
2. Communications technology
3. Communication models
4. Communication methods
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Plan Communications?
1. Communications management plan
2. Project document updates, including the project schedule, stakeholder register, and stakeholder management strategy
Describe Communications Requirements Analysis
Information needs of stakeholders are analyzed, including type, format and timing needs.
- Take care to avoid wasting resources on unnecessary information or inappropriate technology
- Remember to consider the number of communications channels n*(n-1)/2 to limit who will communicate with whom
Describe Communications Technology
Analysis to consider methods and technologies suited to the project. Factors to consider:
- Urgency of need for information
- Availability of technology
- Expected project staffing
- Duration of the project
- Project environment
Describe Communication Methods
- Interactive communication, includes meetings, phone calls, video conferencing
- Push communication, when we send information to specific recipients. Includes letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, press releases. Without a confirming return, we cannot know this communication reached its target.
- Pull communication, when the stakeholder actually has to act to retrieve communication. Includes internet sites, knowledge repositories.
Describe the Communication Plan
The Communications Plan, contained in, or a subsidiary of, the project management plan. Contains:
- Stakeholder communication requirements
- Language, format, content, and level of detail
- Reason for distributing the information
- Timing and frequency of distribution
- Responsibility for authorizing and communicating
- Methods of conveying information
- Resources allocated for communications activities
- Issue escalation policies and procedures
- Update method for maintaining the plan
- Glossary of common terms
- Flowcharts of information flow
- Communication constraints
Describe the process 10.3 Distribute Information
The process of making information available to project stakeholders as planned. Includes implementing the Communications Management Plan, as well as responding to unexpected requests for information.

Spans a number of techniques, including sender-receiver models, choice of media, writing style, meeting management techniques, presentation techniques, and facilitation techniques.
Why does sharing information mean sharing power?
- Project personnel should communicate data honestly and thus share power.
- Sharing data gives project personnel potential power
- Senior executives and the project manager are responsible for establishing the conditions that encourage honest communication and shared power.
What are the INPUTS of the process - Distribute Information?
1. Project management plan, including communication management plan
2. Performance reports to distribute project performance and status information. This will include forecasts, perhaps from earned value management techniques
3. Organization process assets, including templates, historical information and lessons learned, and policies, procedures, and guidelines regarding information distribution
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Distribute Information?
1. Communication methods, such as meetings, video and audio conferences, computer chats and so forth
2. Information distribution tools, including hard-copy documents, filing systems, press releases, shared access databases, electronic formats like e-mail, fax, voice mail, telephone, websites, and electronic tools for project management, such as web interfaces, virtual office, software portals, etc.
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Distribute Information?
1. Organization process assets updates including:
- Lessons learned documentation
- Project records (includes correspondence, memos, and documents describing the project)
- Project reports (formal or informal reports on project status and/or issues)
- Project presentations (formal or informal presentations to project stakeholders customized based upon the needs of the audience)
- Feedback from stakeholders
- Stakeholder notifications
Describe the process 10.4 Manage Stakeholder Expectations
- The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur
- Managing expectations can help to increase the probability of project success by making sure that stakeholders understand the project benefits, risks, and issues, thereby enabling them to be active project supporters
- Managing stakeholder expectations is a project manager responsibility
What are the INPUTS of the process - Manage Stakeholder Expectations?
1. Stakeholder register from Identify Stakeholders process
2. stakeholder management strategy, from Identify sTakeholders process
3. Project management plan, which contains the communications management plan
4. Issue log, which documents issues, assigns ownership, and sets a target data for closure
5. Change log, documenting changes that occur in the project
6. Organizational process assets, including issues management procedures
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Manage Stakeholder Expectations?
1. Communication methods
2. Interpersonal skills, including building trust, resolving conflict, active listening, and overcoming resistance to change
3. Management skills, including presentation skills, negotiating, writing skills, and public speaking
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Manage Stakeholder Expectations?
1. Organizational process updates, including causes of issues, reasons for corrective actions taken, lessons learned
2. Change requests, to be process in Perform Integrated Change Control
3. Project management plan updates, including the communication management plan
4. Project document updates, including stakeholder management strategy, the stakeholder register, and the issue log
Describe the process 10.5 Report Performance
Involves collection and distribution of performance information, including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts to stakeholders
- Can include how resources are being used to achieve project objectives
- Should provide information on scope, schedule, cost and quality
- May also require information on risk and procurement
- Reports may be prepared comprehensively or on an expectation basis
What are the INPUTS of the process - Report Performance?
1. Project Management Plan, which includes baselines
2. Work performance information from Direct and Manage Project Execution, including deliverable status, schedule progress, and costs incurred
3. Work performance measurements, to generate project activity metrics, including planned versus actual schedule, cost, and technical performance
4. Budget forecasts from the Control Cost process
5. Organizational process assets including report templates, policies and procedures defining the measures and indicators to use, and organizational variance tolerance
What are the TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES of the process - Report Performance?
1. Variance analysis, to look at what caused variance
2. Forecasting methods
3. Communication methods
4. Reporting systems, which is a standard tool to help the project manager capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders, using software tools to assist.
What are the OUTPUTS of the process - Report Performance?
1. Performance reports
3. Organizational process assets updates, including reports, lessons learned, causes of issues and corrective action taken, and any other historical information
3. Change requests, processed through Perform integrated change control process. Could include recommended corrective or preventive action.
What are examples of Forecasting methods?
- Time series method, using history to estimate future outcomes
- Casual/econometric methods, including regression analysis, auto-regressive moving average, and econometrics
- Judgmental methods, including composite forecasts, surveys, Delphi method, scenario building, technology forecasting, and forecasting by analogy
- Other methods including simulation, probabilistic forecasting, and ensemble forecasting.
How are Performance Reports used?
Performance reports organize and summarize the information gathered and present the results:
- Information should include status, progress, and issues
- Format can be bar charts, S-curves, histograms, and tables
- Variance analysis, earned value analysis, and forecast data are often included
What are some samples of information in Performance Reports?
- Analysis of past performance
- Current status of issues and risks
- Work completed in period just ended
- Work to be completed in period coming up
- Summary of changes approved in period
- Results of any variance analysis
- Forecasted project completion (time and cost)
- Other relevant information