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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the closest relatives to land plants?
charophytes - green algae
What features link charophytes to land plants?
- plasma membranes with rose arrays of proteins
- similar peroxisomal enzymes
- similar rRNA and DNA
- plasmodesmata
What are 6 challenges plants faced as they transitioned to land?
- minerals from soil
- water from soil (dessication)
- must support own weight
- less water for sperm to swim in
- less water for spores to swim in
What are some innovations plants developed for land?
- waxy cuticle
- stomata, allow gas exchange through cuticle
- gametangia to protect from dessication
What are the two types of gametangia?
archegonium - female sex organ
antheridium - male sex organ
What generations dominate in primitive and complex plants?
primitive plants - haploid dominates
complex plants - diploid dominates
What is the muticellular diploid plant called?
sporophyte
What is the multicellular haploid plant called?
gametophyte
How did non-tracheophytes obtain water and minerals?
- grow in dense masses that move water through capillary action
- small leaf like structures catch and hold water
- small size allows minerals to spread by diffusion
How do tracheophytes move water and minerals?
2 vascular tissues
PHLOEM - photosynth products from source to sink
XYLEM - water and minerals from soil to top
What are our 3 favorite non-tracheophyte plants?
liverworts, hornworts and mosses
Discribe liverworts:
- most ancient surviving plant lineage
- gametophytes: flat plates of cells
- rhizoids
- finger-head structures for archegonia
- disc-head structures for antheridia
Describe hornworts:
- stomata
- single large chloroplast
- use cyanobacteria
- can grow indefinately
How do mosses transport water and sugar?
Hydroid cells die and leave channel for which water to flow.
What are some other features of moss?
- protonema, gametophyte with branched filamentous structure
- rhizoid
- gametophyte dominant
- sporophyte dependant
- reliance on motile sperm and water
- reliance on haploid spores for dispersal
What does the sporophyte produce?
unicellular haploid spores through meiosis
What is a tracheid?
the primary water conducting cell in in xylem
How are the haploid and diploid generations of nonseed tracheophytes related?
they are independent

Sporophyte - visible plant
Gametophyte - tiny and short lived
What was up with plant life in the devonian?
- proliferation of club mosses, horsetails and ferns
- trees
- environment more hospitable to animals
- forest of club mosses flourished
In was phylum were the first tracheophytes?
Rhynophyta - now extinct
Did rhynophyta have leaves?
no
What is the origin of roots?
a branch grew into the ground, anchored and then felt different selective pressures, evolving to roots
What is the origin of leaves?
- sterile sporangia made simple leaves
- photosynthetic material grew between branches to make complex leaves
What is a homosporous plant?
plants that bear one type of spore
What is a heterosporous plant?
plants that bear megaspores and microspores
What are 6 tracheophyte features?
- decrease in gamete size/ increase in sporophyte size
- independent haploid and diploid generations
- emergence of pollen to replace sperm
- specialization of tracheids
- development of true roots and leaves
- heterosporous
How do ferns do things?
- tracheophytes
- specialized roots emanating from rhizomes
- gametophyte underground and small
- sporophyte large and nutritionally independent
- reliance on motile sperm and water
- reliance on haploid spores for dispersal
gymnosperms
naked seeds

- ginko. cycads, confers, welwitschia
angiosperms
flowers

- monocots and dicotyledons
Describe the gametophyte generation in seed plants:
greatly reduced with haploid gametophyte attached to and nutrionally dependent upon sporophyte