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50 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes
Bacteria and a cell lacking a membrane-bounded nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles
Bacteria
The phylogenetic domain consisting of all prokaryotes that are not members of the domain Archaea.
Phylogeny
The evolutionary history of groups of organisms.
Classification
The grouping and ranking of organisms.
Nitrogen-Fixation
The incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds.
Heterocysts
A transparent, thick-walled, nitrogen-fixing cell that forms in the filaments of certain cyanobacteria.
False Branching
Due to breakage of one filament into 2 parts, and the lateral displacement of the ends of 2 aligned but now separate filaments through the thick sheath material.
Protozoa
One-celled "animal-like" protists and as a group gave rise to the true animals and fungi.
Algae
Plant-like protists and as a group gave rise to the plant kingdom.
Mycetozoa
A third protistan group which consists of organisms loosely known as slime molds.
Heterotrophic
Having to obtain their food from other organisms by eating plants, animals, or other organisms. ("Other-Feeders")
Ingestion
Taking in whole food particles, just as most animals do.
Flagellum
A long threadlike organelle that protrudes from the surface of a cell.
Eukaryotic Flagellum
A distinctive internal structural organization of 9 double microtubules surrounding a pair of microtubules in the center.
Amoebae
A group of protozoa that have no flagella.
Cilia
A short, hairlike flagellum, usually numerous and arranged in rows.
Ciliates
Have numerous, short whip-like structures known as cilia.
Autotrophic
Able to synthesize their own food from simple inorganic compounds using the energy of light. ("Self-Feeders")
Phycobilins
A group of water-soluble accessory pigments, which occur in the red algae and cyanobacteria.
Cyclosis (Cytoplasmic Streaming)
The streaming of cytoplasm within a cell.
Absorption
Invade the tissues of other either living or dead organisms and secrete substances that liquefy part of the other organism so that they are able to absorb nutrients from the other organism into their own body.
Parasite
An organism that lives on or in an organism of a different species and derives nutrients from it.
Saprobes
An organism that secures its food directly from nonliving organic matter.
Mycelium
The mass of hyphae forming the body of a fungus, oomycete, or chytrid.
Hyphae
Fungal filaments that grow rapidly.
Chitin
A tough material found in hard shells or exoskeletons. It's more resistant to microbial degradation than is cellulose.
Coenocytic
"Contained in a common cytoplasm" or multinucleate.
Septa
A partition or cross wall.
Septate
Divided by cross walls into cells or compartments.
Chytrids
The only fungi that still have flagellate, motile cells, but no chitin or cellulose.
Zygomycetes
Fungi that have septate hyphae only as part of the formation of reproductive structures.
Zygospores
A thick-walled, resistant spore that develops from a zygote, resulting from the fusion of isogametes.
Zygosporangium
A sporangium containing one or more zygospores.
Rhizoids
The special hyphae that attach the mycelium to the substratum.
Sporangia
A hollow unicellular or multicellular structure in which spores are produced.
Spores
A reproductive cell, usually unicellular, capable of developing into an adult without fusion with another cell.
Ascomycetes
Fungi that usually have septate hyphae that are perforated and that develop a special kind of reproductive structure known as an ascus.
Ascus
A sac-like structure in which meiosis takes place and spores known as ascospores are formed internally.
Ascospore
A spore produced within an ascus; found in ascomycetes.
Apothecium
A cup-shaped or saucer-shaped open ascoma.
Cleistothecium
A closed, spherical ascoma.
Perithecium
A spherical or flask-shaped ascoma.
Basidiomycetes
Most complex group of fungi, always have septate hyphae that are perforated, and have a reproductive structure known as a basidium.
Basidium
Club-shaped reproductive structure in which nuclear fusion and meiosis occur.
Basidiospores
Attached by slender stalks to the outside surface of the basidium.
Deuteromycetes
Appear to be ascomycetes that no longer reproduce sexually.
Ex.= Penicillium (antibiotic)
Lichens
Compound organisms that are formed through an obligate symbiotic association between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or an alga.
Crustose
Flattened and adhere firmly to some substrate such as a rock.
Foliose
Leaflike and are loosely attached to their substrate such as a rock or tree branch.
Fructicose
Erect and branched with a bushy appearance.