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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
respiration
process of gas exchange
internal respiration
use of oxygen within mitochondria to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, and production of CO2 as waste
external respiration
exchange of O2 and CO2 between the atmosphere and body tissues
pulmonary ventilation
movement of air into lungs and out of lungs by bulk flow
upper airways
air passages in head and neck
pharynx
muscular tube that serves as common passageway for both air and food
respiratory tract
all air passsgeways leading from pharynx to lungs
conducting zone
upper part, conducting air from larynx to lungs
respiratory zone
lowermost part, sites of gas exchange within the lungs
larynx
tube held open by cartilage
glottis
opening to larynx
epiglottis
flap of tissue over the glottis that prevents food or water from entering the larynx when swallowing
trachea
cartilaginous tube of resp. tract, located between larynx and bronchi
bronchi
branched tube that conducts air to each lung
secondary bronchis
branches off bronchi leading to lungs
secondary bronchi
branches off bronchi leading to lungs
bronchioles
small tubules leading from bronchi to alveoli, less than 1 mm in diameter
terminal bronchioles
bronchioles that lead directly to airways of respiratory zone of resp. tract, the last component of conducting zone
goblet cells
epithelial cells in resp. tract and GI tract that secrete mucus
cilia
hairlike processes found on certain epithelial cells in resp. tract and oviduct
resp. bronchioles
small tubules of resp. tract between terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts
alveoli
terminal sacs of resp. tract, where most gas exchange occurs, usually grouped in clusters
alveolar sacs
clusters of alveoli at end of an alveolar duct
type I cells
epithelial cells lining alveoli
respiratory membrane
structure across which gas exchange occurs in the lungs; a barrier between blood and air consisting of capillary endothelial cells and their basement membranes and alveolar epithelial cells and their basement membranes
chest wall
structures that protect the lungs and form an airtight compartment around them (rib cage, sternum, thoracic vertebrae, muscles, and CT)
internal intercostals
muscles of expiration that are located between the ribs
external intercostals
inspiratory muscles of chest wall
diaphragm
primary inspiratory muscle for respiration; separates abdominal and thoracic cavities
pleura
membrane that lines chest wall and lung, forming pleural sac around each lung
pleural sac
membrane surrounding each lung
intrapleural space
fluid filled compartment located between lungs and chest wall; bounded by visceral and parietal pleura
atmospheric pressure
pressure of outside air, 760 mm Hg
intrapleural pressure
pressure of fluid inside pleural space
intra-alveolar pressure
pressure exerted by air in alveoli
transpulmonary pressure
difference between the intrapleural pressure and intra-alveoloar pressure, which represents the distending pressure acting on the lungs; Palv - Pip
functional residual capacity (FRC)
volume of air in lungs at end of resting expiration
pneumothorax
condition in which air enters the pleural space, causing lungs to collapse and chest wall to expand
Boyles Law
inverse relationship between pressure and volume
pulmonary surfactant
detergent like substance secreted by type II alveolar cells; decreases the surface tension in the lungs
type II alveolar cells
cells that ling the alveoli and secrete surfactant
spirometer
device for measuring lung volumes
tidal volume
volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs during a normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
maximum volume of air that can be inspired at end of resting expiration
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
maximum volume of air that can be expired from end of normal expiration
residual volume
volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration
inspiratory capacity
maximum volume of air that can be inspired at end of resting expiration
vital capacity
maximum volume of air that can be expired following maximum inspiration
total lung capacity
volume of air in lungs after end of maximum inspiration
forced vital capacity
maximum amount of air a personal can forcefully expire following a maximum inspiration
forced expiratory volume
measure of % of forced vital capacity that can be exhaled within certain time frame
minute ventilation
total amount of air that flows into or out of resp. system in a minute
respiratory rate
frequency of breaths
anatomical dead space
conducting zone of resp. tract; air in this region does not participate in gas exchange
alveolar ventilation
a measure of the volume of fresh air reaching alveoli each minute, which is minute ventilation corrected for dead space volume, also called minute alveolar ventilation
respiratory quotient
ratio of CO2 produced by body to amount of O2 consumed
partial pressure
the proportion of pressure of an entire gas mixture that is due to the presence of an individual gas
hyperpnea
an increase in alveolar ventilation to match increased metabolic demands
hyperventilation
an increase in alveolar ventilation such that metabolic demands of the tissue are exceeded
hypoventilation
a decrease in alveolar ventilation such that metabolic demands of the tissue are not met
hemoglobin
a protein in RBC that carries O2 and CO2
Bohr effect
effect of hydrogen ions on the ability of hemoglobin to bind to O2
carbamino effect
decrease in affinity of hemoglobin for O2 when CO2 binds to hemoglobin
carbaminohemoglobin
hemoglobin with CO2 bound to it
carbonic anhydrase
enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction converting CO2 and water to carbonic acid
peripheral chemoreceptors
chemoreceptors located in carotid arteries that respond to changes in arterial PO2, PCO2, and pH and are involved in regulating ventilation
central chemoreceptors
chemoreceptors located in the medulla oblongata that respond directly to changes in hydrogen ion concentration in CSF and indirectly to arterial PCO2; function in regulating ventilation
acidosis
condition in which arterial blood pH is 7.35 or lower
alkalosis
condition in which arterial blood pH is 7.45 or greater
respiratory acidosis
decrease in blood pH caused by increases in plasms CO2 levels
respiratory alkalosis
increase in blood pH caused by decreases in plasma CO2 levels