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### 15 Cards in this Set

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 The application of logic and reason to observations and conclusions. What is Critical Thinking? (12) Using your existing knowledge to solve problems through observing, gathering information and making logical adjustments based on previous information and that you have gathered. The outermost and thinnest layer of Earth. It can be divided into two compositional layers: Oceanic & Continental. (558) What is the Crust? This layer is generally cool, made of hard, solid rock, and varies in thickness from 2.5-4.3 miles (oceanic) to 12-25 miles (continental) The rate that electric charges move through a conductor. What is Current? (439) This can be Direct_?__ where electric charges move from one terminal to another in the same direction or Indirect where charges can move to terminals alternately. A reaction in which one compound breaks into at least two products. What is a Decomposition Reaction? (155) A reaction that breaks substances apart. AB yields A + B; Ex.2H2O yields 2H2 + O2 or Electrolysis of water breaks down into hydrogen gas & oxygen gas when electric current flows through water. The mass per unit volume of a substance. What is Density? (55) D = m/V ; D = mass divided by volume. also comparisons of substances as light or heavy; will it float/sink, rise in air/ remain on earth. The process by which sediment is laid down. What is Deposition? (586) The sediment is dropped out/deposited as rivers slow down when entering a lake, gulf, bay, sea or ocean. Any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller that the largest of the original waves. What is Destructive Interference? (377) In wave interaction, when the crest of one wave meets the trough of another wave, the resulting wave has a smaller amplitude than the larger of the two waves. If two waves have equal amplitude they may cancel each other out with this type interaction. A nonsoap water-soluble cleaner that can emulsify dirt and oil. What is Detergent? (208) Varies from soap as the charged end of a detergent is a sulfonate group (-SO3) not a carboxylate group (-COO-) ; also differ from soaps because their chains are derived from petroleum products instead of compounds found in animal fats. The temperature at which water vapor molecules start to form liquid water. What is the Dew Point? (608) Depends on humidity. If high the droplets form more easily. Ex. the drops of water, condensation, that forms on a cold glass of ice water. The cold surface of glass provides a place wher this critical temperature is reached and water shifts from gas to liquid. The bending of a wave as it passes an edge or an opening. What is Diffraction? (375) Ex. waves passing around a block in a tank of water. Waves bend around the edge of the block and spread ou into the space behind the block. A substance that donates protons, H+ , to form hydronium ions, H3O+, when dissolved in water. What is an Acid? (199) Properties: sour taste, can burn skin/eyes, turns blue litmus paper red & can conduct electricity. Ex. Hydrocloric (muriatic) cleaning, pool chemical; Nitric / fertilizer/TNT; Formic/ dyeing textile; Citric / soft drinks, candles, & flavorings Any precipitation that has an unusually high concentration of sulfuric or nitric acids resulting from chemical pollution of the air. What is Acid Rain? (585) Causes damage to both living organisms and inorganic matter; Chemical Weathering. A weak base that neutralizes excess stomach acid. What is an Antacid? (210) Ex. sodium hydrogen carbonate and magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia); Nexium or Prilosec. A substance that either contains hydroxide ions, OH-, or reacts with water to form hydroxide ions. What is a Base? (201) Properties: Slippery, bitter, can conduct electricity, turns red litmus paper to blue, burns skin in concentrated form A basic solution that can either can either be used as a disinfectant or th remove colors and stains. What is Bleach. (209) A solution of sodum chlorite, NaOCl, and water; it removes the color of unwanted stain by oxidizing the component responsible.