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89 Cards in this Set

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Age of the Universe?
14 billion years
All large spirals and elipticals probably have what at thier centers?
Black holes
Asthenospheres and lithosphere.
Boundary between rising rocks.
Big Bang what does it mean?
Begining of the universe.
Characteristics of population I and II objects
Classifications of stars, milky Way, glaxy and sun.
Characteristics of Red Giant Stars.
Slant/cool-red, dying stars
Chief sourse of the energy that powers geological processes today.
Internal Heat.
Denisity of granitic continental crust compared to basaltic oceanic crust
heavy rock dense granite
Element that is most abundant in earth's crust.
Oxygen
End state of a heavy star(greater than about 8 solar masses)
neutron star
End state of stars starting with less than about 8 solar masses.
white dwarf
Energy source of quasars
bright far away galaxy formed matter falling into a black hole
Evidence suggests that the universe consists of dark energy dark matter and barionic (visible) matter, what are these proportions roughly
75% dark energy, 20% dark matter, 10% visible
For building large telescopes which is the best glass lenses or mirrors
mirrors
galactic shapes
major kinds:
spiral: organized rotation gas and dust contributes to star formation, 10 new stars per year.
eliptical: no definate rotation, old, used up all gas and dust, no new star formation.
irregulars:
3 heavy elements in the earth were a consequence of what?
Previous super-nova explosions, material ejected contributes to gas and dust in galaxy contributing to new stars.
How does the age of oceanic crust compare with continental crust.
Oceanic: basaltic, young
Continental: grantic, old
How is the Pacific Plate moving to create the San Andreas Fault
Transform Fault: sliding motion
H-R diagram, most stars are where?
On the main sequence, 90%
Information about the orgin of the universe does not come from what evidence?
Hydrogen and Helium, background radiation.
Matter-antimatter proportion in the universe.
When creating matter, antimatter particle is created, all anti matter has disappeared. We live in a "matter" universe.
Mid-ocean ridge
Divergent Plate boundary (creating new basaltic crust)
Mineral characteristics as far as shape, state of matter and chemical composition.
Shape: chrystilline solid, solid state of matter
Most volcanoes are located where
subduction zones (ie. Jananese Island)
Ocean Floors consist mainly of
basalt, denser heavier rock
Present age and expected lifetime of the sun and earth
4-5 billion years old, expected 10 billion.
Primary cosmic rays from where do they arise and from where do they circulate
27 primary, they are really particals from super nova explosions and are ciculating at a constant rate, arise from...
regions in which molten rock rises and spreads out in the earths crust are called what
Divergent plate boundaries
Stars whose intrinsic brightness (luminousity and period of variation are related)
Cepheie Variables slight change in luminousity variables
Subduction Zone
Convergent Plate boundary
Sun has what location in what galaxy?
2/3 way out from galactic center
Sun's energy source
Nuclear fusion of hydrogen and helium
Sun spots effects on earth
magnetic fields, solar flares, for example can effect earth, can disrupt communication.
The metamorphism of shale may produce what metamophic rock
slate
The proportionality between the reccession speeds of the galaxies and thier distaces from the earth is known as?
Hubles Law: V=H x d
The Richter Earthquake magnitude Scale
Powers of 10:
2 magnitude division is 10 times the amplitude (height of wave)
3 magnitude 100 amplitude, etc.
Today's universe is bathed in a sea of radio waves called what?
Cosmic Microwave Background radiation
What does it mean that a star has a red shift?
Moving away, light is shifting toward the red end of the spectrum.
What force makes a black hole black
gravity
What property can be determined from double binary stars?
mass
What was the cosmic abundance of helium created?
3 minutes after the big bang
Acceleration of gravity acting on a projectile in 1 dimention
Freely falling only gravity is acting on it. gravity is always acting on an object no matter where it is. 9.8 m/s^2
Acceleration, calculation
Change in velocity/Time it takes to make the change
Acceleration two ways it can occur
Speeding up, slowing down, or change direction
Action and reaction pairs for a falling object
All forces occur in pairs, action reaction, push, pull
Alpha decay, Reason for.
For heaviest elements: too heavy to be stable, so decays, too many nuclear particles
Archimedes Principle as applies to a floating object
Water displaced is equal to weight of object floating
Atom and nuceus, relative sizes
Nucleus is very small compared to whole atom
Beta Decay, why does it occur
Too many neutrons for the nucleus to be stable
Calculation of electric power
power = current x voltage

P = I x V
Classification of matter
mixtures, compounds, elements
Compositions, Revolutions, rotation, axial tilt of the planets
Inner planets: Rocky, terrestrial
Outer Planets : Gas
Axial: Different depending on planet
Consequences of the postulates of Einsteins Special relativity
effects time, slows, lengthens, contracts
Copernicus what was he known for.
helio centric world view
Covalent bonding
Sharing of electrons, ie. carbon
Current length standard in the metric system
distance traveled by light in 1/300 million seconds
definition of energy
ability or capacity to do work
Einsteins General Relativity
Matter warps or distorts and;local distortion of space time by matter is gravity.
Electric transformers
Transform Voltage
Element and compound difference in the two
Element: one kind of atom
Compound: different atoms bonded together
Element what defines it
# of protons
Energy transformations
energy is never destroyed just transformed from one form to another
Evaporative process
Dissapearance of high speed particles from liquid lowering temperature of body of liquid.
Fission and fusion: fundamental thing that happens in these processes
Turning some mass into energy
Fundamental cause of electromagnetic waves
Electric charges accelerating
Heat engine ways to increase efficiency
Ethermal =1-(Tc/Th), increase high temp or decrease low temp
Hetero and homogeneous mixtures
Hetero: mixed composition
Homo: Same composition
How many bonds must carbon and oxygen come from?
Carbon - 4
Oxygen - 2
Jupiters mass, composition, internal structure, surface features
-Very massive (300 times of earth)
-mostly gas,
-internal liquid gas under pressure
-convection currents smeared into bands
-
Law of Inertia (Newton's First Law)
Object resists a change in motion, has inertia
Magnetism: Fundamental Cause
Electric charges in motion
Momentum conservation: recoil
High Velocity bullet out of gun, recoil motion of gun \velocity x mass
equal both ways
Best moon origion theory
Giant Impact
Newton's Second Law, analysis
acceleration = force/mass all falling objects accelerate at same rate
Number of compounds and elements found in Nature
about 100 elements: innumerable compouds
Why is organic compound number so large?
Carbon can bond to itself and other elements
O is _____ bonded to C in functional groups.
double
R-OH
Alcohol
R=C-H
O
Aldehyde
R-C-OH
O
Carboxyl Acids
R-O-R
Ether
R-C-R
O
Ketone
R-C-O-R
O
Ester
Projectile motion
motion in 2 directions
(vertical and horzontal)
horzontal: has no forces acting on it
vertical: gravity acts on object
solar eclipse
eclipse of sun

SUN MOON EARTH
lunar eclipse
SUN EARTH MOON
Defintion of temperature at the microscopic level
Measure of average random kenetic energy of a particle (straight line kenetic energy)
Fundamental cause of tide raise by moon.
One side of moon is closer to sun. same pull on opposite sides
Surface characteristics, and causes of Venus and Mars
Venus - hot, runway greehouse effect too close to sun
Mars - cold, runway refrigerator effect too far from sun