Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is science?
knowledge (Latin-scientia); seeking knowledge in an organized way
What is scientific method?
Organized approach for doing science; testing hypothesis "trial and error"; prepare a solution and test it; Hypothesis-initial suggestion...collect data...Theory framework...collect data...working theory (adjusted to fit data); The data is continually collected and theory is adjusted as needed; Observation...Hypothesis...Experiment...Theory
What is astronomy?
Evolved from folklore, observation, and speculation...true science!
What's the difference between theory and belief?
Theory is specific predictions of what will happen which is then tested. Belief is untested.
What are the theory components?
1. Consistent with known facts.
2. Makes predictions that can be tested.
3. Should satisfy Occam's Razor. Nature is simple...explanation that is complex with unknown assumptions is less likely than one requiring few/no assumptions.
What is pseudoscience?
Search in ways at first that seems scientific, but later found to NOT be scientific. ex. "Tabloid Science"
What is nonscience?
knowledge sought through: intuition, tradition, scriptures, feelings, beliefs, etc.--faith...Does not follow scientific method!
Is Science Objective?
Usually...Bias does creep in and ruin things! Science is a human enterprise (filled with errors and biases)
What is matter?
"stuff"...solid, liquid, gas, plasma
What is energy?
ability to do work
What are the types of energy?
kinetic (motion)...k...k=1/2mv² (m=mass; v=velocity) and potential (position)...u...u=mgh (m=mass, g=9.8m/s² and radioactive(light)
Tell about temperature...
Atoms in matter are in motion. Particles have kinetic energy. Random movements. Temperature is the average kinetic energy of particles in matter. Higher the kinectic energy, the higher the temperature.
What is thermal energy?
Energy contained within a substance as measured by its temperature.
What is heat?
The total energy for all atoms.
Einstein stated that mass and energy are equivalent. E=mc² (E=energy, m=mass, c=speed of light (3x10^8m/s). A small amount of mass=large amount of energy.
Conservation of energy
Form of energy can change- total is constant (k, U, etc) or k+U=constant
-Joule (J)- S.I. (metric) 1J=1 N.M
-Electron- Volt (eV) 1eV=1.6x10^-19J (atomic/nuclear physics)
-Watt (1 J/S)
Phases of Matter
*Increasing Temperature*
What is an atom?
Smallest unit of matter that is recognizable as a chemical element with its own unique set of physical properties.
What is an atom?
Smallest unit of matter that is recognizable as a chemical element with its own unique set of physical properties.
What is radiation?
Particles emitted from unstable atoms.
What is ionizing radiation?
Radiation with sufficient energy to remove electrons from an atom to create an ion pair.
What is radioactivity?
The spontaneous decay or disintegration of an unstable atom, usually accompanied by the emission of ionizing radiation.
What is radioactive material?
A material which exhibits radioactive properties that can exist in the form of a solid, liquid, or gas.
What is radioative contamination?
Radioactive material located in places where it is not desired.
Atom component Information
Symbol--Particle--Charge--Particle Mass
p--proton-- +1e-- 1836m
n--neutron-- 0-- 1839m
e--electron-- -1e-- m
e=1.6021 x 10 ^-19C
m=9.1091 x 10 ^-31kg
Atom facts
Neutrons are electrically neutral and are slightly more massive than protons. Neutrons hold the nucleus together by balancing the short range strong force with the longer range Coulomb electromagnetic force. Neutral atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons. Ions are created when external stimuli remove one or more electrons from an atom. At least two ions are created (total charge is conserved) from a neutral atom.
What is atomic number?
atomic number- Number of protons or electrons in a neutral atom is denoted by Z. Individual elements are identified by their unique atomic number. For example, carbon has an atomic number (Z) of 6.
What is atomic mass?
Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is denoted by A. The resulting neutron number (N) is simply the atomic mass minus the atomic number. For example, the slow neutron fissionable type of uranium has an atomic mass (A) of 235 and atomic number (Z) of 92. This type of uranium has a total of 143 neutrons (N).
What is a nuclide?
Unique collection of protons and neutrons. A nuclide that is radioactive is known as a radionuclide. For example, radium (Z=88) has a radionuclide that has an atomic mass (A) of 226.
What is an isotope?
Grouping of nuclides with variable atomic mass (A) for a given atomic number. For example, the element hydrogen (Z=1) has 3 isotopes. (All atomic number 1, but masses of 1, 2, & 3)
What is an isobar?
Nuclides with the same atomic mass number. (Example -60/28Ni and 60/27Co).
What is an isotone?
Nuclides with the same neutron number (Example- 90/38Sr and 91/39Y with N=52)
What are quarks?
sub-subatomic particles
What are protons and neutrons?
subatomic particles
Quick facts about elements and atoms
109 Named Elements...sub-subatomic particles, subatomic particles, atoms, molecules (groups of atoms)
Renaissance Astronomy
15th Century- reawkening of intellectual spirit
-increased maritime exploration
Developments in this era led to the development of Modern Astronomy
Facts about Copernicus
19 years before Columbus made his 1st voyage, Niklas Koppernigk was born in Torun in N. Poland.
-attended the Univ. of Cracow
-Latin-changed his name to "Nicolaus Copernicus"
-Developed an interest in college for astronomy
-Fully aquainted with Aristotle view
-Understood Ptolemaic model
After college, Copernicus persisted in his studies of Astronomy
By 1514, Developed doubts in accepted geocentric system
Reasons for doubt in geocentric theory (copernicus)
-Long assumed he adopted sun-centered (heliocentric) view because of the shortfalls of Ptolemaic geocentric model: 1. no direct evidence of this! 2. no records found stating Copernicus found inaccuracies in geocentric model.
Basis for adopting heliocentric model were subtile: 1. Presented a "more" pleasing and unifying model" of the universe 2. Encouraged by climate of change that was sweeping Europe
Copernican model was no more accurate in predicting motions that geocentric model.