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191 Cards in this Set

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macronutrients
provide energy in the form of calories
diet composed of __ macronutrients
3 - protein, fat, carbohydrate
micronutrients
not energy providing, but can be energy providing pathways (vitamins and minerals)
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions taking place in the body
__________ need to be attained to adequately perform metabolism
nutrients
calorimetry
energy is the capacity to do work
metabolic energy is derived from the catabolism (breakdown of food)
net energy of food
fat
carb
protein
alcohol
fat 9
carb 4
protein 4
alcohol 7
dietary calorie
quantity of heat necessary to raise temp of one kilogram of water one degree C
typical US diet vs high-fiber low fat diet

fat
30-35%

10-20%
typical US diet vs high-fiber low fat diet

carb
40-50% high in refined suger

55-65% high in unrefined sugar
typical US diet vs high-fiber low fat diet

protein
15-20%

15-25%
whole grain
grain milled in its entirety (bran, germ, endosperm)
refined food
coarse parts have been removed (only endosperm)
enriched products
processed foods that have some nutrients added back
primary fates of nutrients

fat
carb
broken down for energy or stored as bodyfat

broken down for energy or stored as gloycogen
digestion
breakdown of food
absorption
passage of food from the gut into the intestinal cells and then into the circulation
transport
nutrients, once absorbed, are moved throughout the body in the blood
storage
cells pick up nutrients from blood and store them for later use
___________ are easiest to digest followed by __________ and ____________.
simple sugars, proteins, lipids
with exception of _________ little absorption takes place in the stomach.
alcohol
large meal takes _______ to clear the stomach than a smaller one
longer
________ pass most rapidly, ________ undergo a _____________ process
fluids, solids, liquefication
how long food stays in stomach depends on
1
2
3
1 meal size
2 temperature (how cold is fluid? cold fluids get absorbed in 5 min)
3 composition (meal liquid or solid? how much fat & fiber? refined carbs leave stomach quickly, protein and unrefined carbs moderately, fat slowly)
about __% of absorption takes place in the first 2 sections of the small intestine
90
carbs first broken down into _______ molecules which can be stored in the _______ and _______________ as ____________.
glucose, liver, skeletal muscles, glycogen (storage form of carb)
to store _______ in a cell, they must be converted into glycogen
glucose
_________ unlike __________ cannot escape and remains trapped
glycogen, glucose
cells that lack glycogen...
cannot release energy during exercise
we can convert _____ to _____ and store it as energy but not vice versa (except for __________________________________________)
carb, fat, glycerol portion of triglyceride molecule
simple carbs
monosaccharides - basic unit of carb
disaccharides - 2 unit saccharides
complex carbs
polysaccharides...
plant
animal
monosaccharides
glucose (GLU) - blood sugar
fructose (FRU) - found in high concentrations in fruits
galactose (GAL) - part of lactose
polysaccharides
plant - starch, fiber (cannot completely digest or absorb)
animal -glycogen
since 1900, complex carb intake has decreased __% while intake of refined carbs has increased __%
30, 20
pancreas secretes __________________________ to ___________________ to chew up starches
pancreatic amylase, small intestine
intestinal cells secrete _________________ for _________ digestion
enzymes, carb
sucrase
breaks down sucrose into GLU + FRU
maltase
breaks down maltose into 2 GLU
lactase
breaks down lactose into GLU + GAL
lactose intolerance
incapable of breaking down lactose into GLU + GAL due to lactase enzyme deficiency
limits for rate of glucose absorption from smal intestine range from __-__g/hr for a 70kg person
50-80
monosaccharides are absorbed from small intestine into bloodstream via the _____________________________________ that passes by pancreas and induces _________________
hepatic-portal circulation, insulin secretion
liver takes up ______ and converts it to ______ and subsequently into ______________.
fructose, glucose, liver glycogen
glucose in blood is transported into _________ where it forms a polysaccharide __________.
skeletal muscle, glycogen
liver glycogen replenishes blood glucose during ________ stages
postabsorptive
GI
glycemic index
GI measures...
percentage of total area under curve for blood glucose when cosuming a food compared to glucose itself - tells how much and how long glucose is increased in blood after eating food.
because food's fiber content _____ digestion, GI is ________
slows, lower
if one eats food with high GI...
blood glucose rises quickly
amylose
long straight chain of glucose units twisted into a helical coil - slow breakdown and absorption rate
amylopectin
highly branched monosaccharide linkage- increased branching allows greater surface area exposure and hence easier digestion and absorptionof starch form by body (high GI)
glycemic load
GI x amount of grams of food -> determines blood glucose response to a meal
higher glycemic load =
greater rise in blood glucose, insulin release
II
Insulin index
these have disproportionally high insulin responses than predicted by GI
protein rich foods, candy, bakery products high in fat and refined carb
satiety
degree of fullness one feels after eating a food/meal
SI
satiety index
SI measures...
how well different foods fill you up in 240 cal portions
fat content is associated with a ______ SI score
lower
for weight control foods with _____ GIs and SIs are wise choices
lower
dietary fiber
nondigestibale carb and lignins found in plants
functional fiber
synthetic or isolated nondigestible carb that have beneficial physiological effects in humans
total fiber
dietary + functional fiber
__% of fat we eat is in form of triglyc
95
more viscous a fat, the...
greater the degree of unsat fatty acid
saturated
each carbon atom is bound to 4 other atoms
most saturated fats...
raise blood cholesterol
usaturated
a double bond between two carbon molecules
types of unsat fatty acids
monounsaturated (1 double bond)
polyunsaturated (more than 1 double bond)
most common fatty acids are
18 carbon (SOLL) stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic
linoleic
omega-6
linolenic
omega 3
compound fats
contain other molecules in addition to the TG
lipoproteins
contain TG, cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein
4 major lipoproteins
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL (bad), HDL (good)
derived fats
trans fatty acids, steroids
partial hydrogenation
adds hydrogen wheere double bonds are usually present
hydrogen _________ lipid's melting temp, creates ________ fat
increases, firmer
CIS
carbons attached to carbons on same side of FA
TRANS
more straightened chain, adjacent carbons attached to carbons on opposite sides
TFA increases ____ and decreases ___
LDL, HDL
steroids include
cholesterol, cortisol, bile acids, Vitamin D, androgens (testosterone, DHEA, androstenedione), estrogens
bile is produced by ______ and stored in ______________. it....
liver, gall bladder, breaks up fat globules into smaller micelles to increase surface area so they can be acted upon by other enzymes
pancreatic lipase
TG -> 2 FA + MG
long chain fatty acids (more than ___ carbons) along with _________________ reform into ___ and once absorbed into mucosal cells, they combine with _______________, _______________________, _______________ to form __________________
12, monoglycerides, TG, phospholipid, protein, cholesterol, chylomicrons
what gets chylomicrons into tissues from blood
lipoprotein lipase
dietary form of fat
TG
absorbed form of fat into intestinal cells
FFA, MG
transport form of fat
lipoproteins
building blocks of fat are
building blocks of protein are
fatty acids
amino acids
many amino acids but only ___ make up proteins
20
essential amino acids
(pilth took viagra last morning)
phenylalanine
isoleucine
leucine
threonine
histidine
tryptophan
valine
lysine
methionine
protein RDA =
0.8g/kg body weight
types of protein
complete protein(animal origin - has all essential amino acids)
incomplete protein(plant - lacks one or more essential AA)
limiting AA (essential amino acids are in lowest concentration)
protein synthesis (without one AA, can't make some proteins)
protein (nitrogen) balance
nitrogen intake = nitrogen excretion
positive protein balance
net protein intake > net protein excretion
negative protein balance
net protein intake < net protein excretion
types of dietary protein
whey (fast) and casein (slow) found in milk, soy (plant but complete)
micronutrients
do not supply energy, important for metabolic reactions, vitamins and minerals
water soluble vitamins
8 Bs, niacin, flic acid, biotin, panthothenic acid, C
fat soluble vitamins
A,D, E, K
major minerals
need more than 100mg/day - calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium
trace minerals
less than 100mg/day - iron, iodine, chromium, selenium, flouride, copper, manganese, molybdenum (ii kusuri wo fukumu)
phytochemicals
additional vitamin-like compounds that have been documented to impart health benefits
phyto

lycopene
red, tomatoes
phyto

anthocyanins
red-purple, berries, grapes, apples, wine
phyto

B-carotene
orange, mangos, apricots, squash, carrots
phyto

B-cryptothanxin
orange-yellow, oranges, tangerines, peaches, papayas
phyto

lutein, eaxanthin, sulforathane, isothiocyanate, indoles
green, broccolo, brussel sprouts
phyto

flavanoids
white-green, onions, pears, wine, garlic, celery
all phytochemicals
lycopene, anthocyanins, B-carotene, B-cryptothanxin, lutein, zeacanthin, sulforathane, isothiocyanate, indoles, flavanoids (labbel le zinc siif)
bioavailability
amount of nutrient absorbed compared to amount ingested
dietary components
enerygy, carb, fiber, lipid, protein
energy - no RDA
carb - 130g/day
fiber - female 25g, male 35g/day
lipid - no RDA
protein - 0.8g/kg body weight
DV
daily value by food and nutrition board of the national academy of sciences
toxicity
> 500% of RDA
deficiency
< 70% of RDA
advertising claims
parity claim (2 things are equal), improper comparison (extra strength vs regular strength), fat-free (<0.5g fat per serving), lowfat (<3gfat per serving),lite (1/3 less kcal or 50% less fat than original), cholesterol free )less than 2mg cholesterol/serving, 5g fat per serving, 2g or less sat fat), calorie-free/low calorie (contains <5 kcal/serving or <40kcal/serving)
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, form of chemical energy that body produces for biological work
cellular respiration
glucose + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
CP
creatine phosphate
CP breakdown...
drives reformation of ATP
energy systems
immediate energy - ATP-CP system
short-term energy - lactic acid systm (anaerobic glycolysis)
long-term energy - aerobic systerm
3 important functions of carbohydrates
fuel for energy (esp during exercise),protein sparin (preserve tissue proteins) - nitrogen balance improves with ingestion of non-protein calories, fuel for the central nervous system
what hormone controls carb metabolism in liver
glucagon
___________ resupplies blood glucose during post-absorptive periods
liver
glycogenesis
formation of glycogen, stimulated by insulin
glycogenolysis
break down of glycogen to glucose
glycolysis
oxidation of glucose to pyruvate
gluconeogenesis
conversion of pyruvate or other organic precursors to glucose
anaerobic metabolism
glycolysis
aerobic metabolism
oxygen is final acceptor of electrons
glycolysis releases...
2 ATP
pyruvate converted to...
lactic acid, most into acetyl-CoA
anaerobic exercise uses...
aerobic exercise uses...
primarily carbs anaerobically
primarily carbs anaerobically and carbs and fats aerobically
carbs converted to _________
pyruvate ---> ________________ ---> ___
fatty acids, acetyl CoA, FFA
obesity
excessive accumulation of body fat
body fat
males
females
morbidly obese
>25%
>30%
>50%
__% of US population is obese
30
why has obesity increased
energy intake
- inexpensive, energy dense foods
- increased portion sizes
- high fat intake
- increased refined sugar intake
- decreased fruit, veg, fiber intake
energy expenditure
- decreased phys activity
- decreased leisure timephys activity
- increased sedentary behavior
android
apple shape
gynoid
pear shape
android fat poses threats for
gynoid fat comes from
diabetes, hypertensions, hyperlipidemia
pregnancy
hypertrophy
hyperplasia
greater fat size
greater fat cell number
diet induced thermogenesis, TEF
thermic effect of food - metabolism higher after a meal
lipid fuel sources
_____ stored directly in ____________
_____ from TG in ______________ tissue
TG in ______________________ hydrolyzed by __________________ on the capillary endothelium
TG muscle cells
FFA, adipose
lipoprotein complezes, lipoprotein lipase
lipoprotein lipase
enzyme that breaks down plasma TGs into FFA and MG
andipose tissue LPL stimulated by
insulin, caloric restriction, estrogen
lipogenesis
formation and storage of fat
hormone sensitive lipase (HSL)
enzyme that breaks down TG into FFA and glycerl in the adipocyte andin skeletal muscle (lypolysis)
HSL stimulated by

inhibited by
stress hormones catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, testosterone, glucagon

insulin
B-oxidation
fat metabolism in muscle - FFA breakdown into 2 carbon acetyl-CoA fragments, which then undergo aerobic metabolism into ATP
thin protein
actin
thick protein
myosin
functional units of muscle fibers called:

made up of:
myofibrils

actin, myosin
sliding filament theory
proposes that a muscle shortens or lengthnes as the actin and myosin filaments slide past each other without actually changing the length
excitation-contraction coupling
brain starts impulse, calcium released, muscle contracts
muscle fiber types
slow-twitch
fast-twitch
slow-twitch
SO (slow oxidative)
long distance running
large and numerous mitochondria
high myoglobin
dark meat
high abiliity to oxidize fat
fast twitch
fast shortening speed
power lifting

type IIa fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) - high oxidative and glycolytic capacity

type IIx(b) fast glycolytic (FG) low oxidative capacity
neutral control of movement

motor unit
a motorneutron and all the muscle fibers it innervates (controls)
motor units composed of...
fibers of one specific type - fire in an all or none manner
size principle
muscle force requirement increases, larger motor units recruited
recruitment
adding more motor units to increase a muscle's force
lighter to heavier effort
slow twitch.. fast twitch IIa... fast twitch IIx
types of muscle action
isometric - muscle length/joint angle don't change

dynamic muscle action - change in joint angle
- shortening - concentric (raise arm)
- lengthening - eccentric (lower arm) - actually causes more damage
BMR
basal metabolic rate - minimum level of eergy required to sustain body's vital functions in waking state - makes up greatest % of daily energy expenditure
3 factors that determine substrate contribution
exercise intensity
antecedent diet
training status
RER
RQ
respiratory exchange ratio
respiratory quotient
RQ=
CO2 produced/O2 consumed
lower RQ denotes higher % of ______ utilization, high RQ denotes _______.
fat, carb
athlete's diet
carb 5-7g/kg (55-65%)
protein 1-2g/kg (15-25%)
fat 15-20%
typical US diet
kcal 4200

carb 57%
fat 32%
protein 11%
40/30/30 restricted
40/30/30
40/30/30 eucaloric
more than twice as much volume than restricted
appropriate diet
630g carb
93g fat
210g protein
athletic individual zone
hypocaloric, carbs too low
sedentary person needing 2000kcal
typcial american 2000kcal
zone 1088 kcal ok protein, too low calories
eucaloric 200kcal, adjusted levels of fat and protein
lypolysis
breakdown of fat in fat cells
EPOC
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption - elevation of metabolism above resting levels after exercise
principles of exercise physiology
overload principle (GAS-genereal adaptation syndrome)
specificity principle - muscles trained, type of exercise
rate of improvement
maintenance of adaptations
individual principle
motivation
VO2 max =
described as...
maximal aerobic capacityregion whee oxygen uptake plateaus and shows no further increase with an increase in workload/intensity - shows fitness level
maximal oxygen consumption
cardiac output (CO, amount of blood ejected from left ventricle per min)

during maximal exercise, 85-95% OF co IS GOING TO HEART AND ACTIVE skeletal muscle
exercise hyperemia
increase of blood flow to heart and skel musc
1000s of reps
25-100
1-20
endurance training
muscular endurance
strength training zone
exercise
frequency 3-5 days a week
duration 20-60 min
intensity - based on HR
physiological principles of resistance exercise
freq 2 days/wk
intensity 8-12 RM
duration 8-10 exercises, 1-3 sets per exercise, one exercise per body part
DOMS
delayed onset muscle soreness
ergogenic
work producing
Cr
creatine - produced by liver, kidney, pancreas - transported to skeletal muscle
Cr supplement enhances...
ATP resynthesis