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36 Cards in this Set

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Affirming the consequent
An invalid, unsound, form of deductive argument:
If A, then B; B; so, A"
Argument
A claim defended with reasons. A set of statement one of which (conclusion) is claimed or intended to be supported by the others (premise)
Argument based on math
When the argument's conlcusions is claimed to depend mostly or entirley on some mathmatical calculation or measurment it is treated as deductive. Few exceptions
Argument by elimination
A deductive argument that seeks to logically rule out various possibilities until only a single possibility remains.
Argument from analogy
An inductive argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend on an analogy between two things.
Argument from definition
A deductive argument where the conclusion is presented as being true by definition
Categorical Syllogism
3-line argument where all statements are categorical statements. Unless there is clear evidence that that the statment is intended to inductive, always treated as deductive.
Casual argument
An inductive argument that asserts or denies that something causes or has caused or will cause something else.
Ex: She didn't answer the phone, she must not be home.
Chain argument
Deductive argument:
"If A, then B; if B, then C, so if A, then C"
Cogent Argument
Inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises.
Common pattern test
A test in which characteristic patters of deductive or inductive reasoning are used to determine whether an argument is deductive or inductive.
Deductive Argument
Argument in which the conclusion is claimed or intended to follow necessarily form the premises.
Denying the antecedent
An invalid unsound form of deductive argument:
"If A, then B; not A; so not B"
General Statment
A statement form of "all a's are b's; Most a's are b's.
Generalization
Statement that asserts that all or most things of a certain kind have a certain property or characterisitc. Or using stats "A certain % of all A's are B's."
Hypothetical Syllogism
A deductive common pattern where a 3-line argument in which at least one of the premises is an "if-then" statement and/or one is a hypothetical.
Indicator word test
A test using indicator words to determine if an argument is deductive or inductive.
Inductive argument
An argument where the conclusion is claimed or intended to follow probably or likely from the premise.
Inductive generalization
An argument in which a generalization is claimed to be PROBABLY true based on info about some members of a group.
Invalid argument
A deductive argument in which the conlcusion does not follow necessarily from the premise. Or a deductive argument in which it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false.
Modus ponens
A valid, sound, deductive argument form "If A then B; A; therefore, B"
Modus tollen
A valid sound argument form of deductive reasoning:
"If A then B; not B; therefore not A"
Sometimes called "Denying the consequent"
Paticular Statement
A statement that refers to a particular person, place or thing.
Predictive argument
an inductive argument in which a prediction is defended w/ reasons.
Principle of charity
principle of interpretation that requires unlcear passages or arguments be interpreted in the way most favorable to the speaker or writer.
Principle of charity test
If it is unlcear whether the argument is Inductive or deductive, the argument should be interpreted in whatever way is most favorable to the arguer.
Sound argument
a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises.
Statistical argument
An inductive argument that argues the premises are true based on some statistical figures.
Strict necessity test
A test to determie whether an argument is inductive or deductive; if the conclusion follows from the premise with strict logical necesseity, then it should be regarded as deductive.
Strong inductive argument
An inductive argument in which the conclusion follows probably from the premises.
Syllogism
a 3-line argument that consist of two premises and a conclusion. Or more narrowly, a 3-line deductive argument.
Uncogent argument
An inductive argument that is weak or has at least one false premise or both
Unsound argument
A deudctive argument that is invalid or has at least one false premise, or both.
Valid argument
A deductive argument in which the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises. A deductive argument in which it is impossible for the premise to be true and the conclusion false.
Weak argument
An inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises.
Argument from Authority
Inductive argument that asserts a claim and then supports it by citing a presumed athority who has said that the claim is true.