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15 Cards in this Set

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• Words accurately picture reality

• “If one wants to find the meaning of a word one needed only to look at the objects and then utter the word which by convention signifies the object”
Early Wittgenstein
• Logical atomism didn’t go all the way to explain all aspects of reality
• Language can only describe realities apart from the visible world
• The meaning of a word is its use in a particular context
• “Philosophy should provide us with clarity by the careful use of language”
Later Wittgenstein
• A linguistic grammatical system is a set of grammatical values common to all languages

• We are not born with knowledge of concepts

• Language is a system of sensible signs established by convention

• Against behaviorism

• His interest lies not in the learning of words but in the mastering of grammar

• He says that children are born with an innate ability to make the right projection

One can learn a language having only an elementary knowledge of grammar
Chomsky
• When sounds and gestures are not assigned a public meaning, they are meaningless and are considered nonsense


• “Words are signs”


• For language to become meaningful it had to fit into a rule and a system of conventions


• He says language as an entity composed of a grid or a system in which every fragment or unit discourse has to fit
De Saussere
Launched logical atomism

• Words accurately picture reality
Russell
“Among all the information /carrying system the genetic code and the verbal code are the only ones based upon the use of discreet components which by themselves have no meaning but serve to constitute the minimal senseful unit and that its entities endowed with their own intrinsic meaning in a given code”


He argued that the linguistic pattern has been modeled upon the pattern of molecular communication
Jacobson
• He explains how understanding and manipulation are not the same thing
Searle
• He doesn’t agree between any possible segregation between language and social context
Lakoff
• The general use of speech is to transfer our mental discourse into verbal: Or the train of thoughts into a train of words


• Hobbes explains that there is something mental enough like language to call it discourse but which is logically prior to language
Hobbes
• “Our differences are all subjects of some importance. The question is to know whether following Aristotle and Locke the soul in itself is entirely empty like a tablet on which nothing has yet been written and whether all the that is traced thereon come solely from the senses and the experience whether as I would Plato believe the soul contains originally the principles of several notions and doctrines which external objects merely awaken on occasions”

• He says that the infant is predisposed to notice certain features and only some kinds of ideas can be formed in it be experience


• He says that the child like marble is grained so that only some shapes can be known form it by experience
Leibniz
• Locke compares the infant newly brought into the world knowing nothing the wax passively weighs for experience to write upon it as opposed to Leibniz
Locke
• He says that the infant is predisposed to notice certain features and only some kinds of ideas can be formed in it be experience
Descartes
• There exists a “Common human nature found in every individual”
Trigg
• Acts of thinking are mental acts but thoughts are what the mind grasps from what exists in the world. Thoughts are grasped from a world which is available to observers they are objective products of mental activity


• His contribution to modern philosophy and logic began with his rejection of Aristotelian analysis of sentences as being fundamentally of subject/predicate form


Frege’s idea of an objective origin contrasts with the empiricist’s contention that thoughts are primarily subjective, formed the movement of matter in the mind
Frege
• Skinner insists that the human mind is a passive object like all the others and that it’s only capable of input/output functions


• He wouldn’t agree that there is something such as the human mind

• According to Skinner deciding/choosing etc are linked to behavior: It’s by observing the behavior of the person that one knows what mental state they are having
Skinner