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88 Cards in this Set

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The principal neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system
Acetylcholine
A receptor for the sympathetic nervous system that is activated by the neurotransmitter norepinepherine. Alpha, beta, and beta2.
Andrenergic
A drug that selectively suppresses pain without producing sedation.
Analgesic
A drug used to treat infection by killing (bactericidal) or inhibiting the growth (bacteriostatic) of disease-causing (pathogenic) bacteria.
Antibiotic
A drug that opposes the action of acetylcholine at the site of cholinergic receptors.
Anticholinergic
A psychotherapeutic drug that produces mood elevation.
Antidepressant
A drug that prevents or relieves vomiting.
Antiemetic
A drug that lowers high blood pressure.
Antihypertensive
A drug used to decrease symptoms of inflammation by inhibiting the release of prostaglandins.
Anti-inflammatory
A drug that is selectively toxic to rapidly dividing cells such as malignant cells and is used to treat cancer.
Antineoplastic
A drug that suppresses coughing.
Antitussive
An adjective used to descrive a drug that kills bacteria. Most common antibacterial.
Bactericidal
Inhibits bacterial growth but does not kill.
bacteriostatic
That portion of the total drug dose, after absorption that is actually available to interact with receptors and produce a therapeutic effect.
Bioavailability
A receptor for the parasympathetic nervous system that is activated by neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Cholinergic
An agent that is used to kill microorganisms on surfaces and instruments
Disinfectant
A decreased susceptibility to the effects of a drug because of continued use
Drug Tolerance
A drug that thins mucus in the respiratory tract to make it easier to cough it up.
Expectorant
Twice the maintenance dose. Immediate effects. ex Digoxin(Lanoxin)
Loading Dose
An agent (bacteria, virus, etc.) that causes disease.
Pathogen
A drug that dialates the pupil of the eye
Mydriatic
A drug that constricts the smooth muscle of blood vessels to increase the blood pressure
Vasopressor
The highest serum level achieved following a single dose of a drug.
Peak level
To Keep guard for. Preventative.
Prophylaxis
describes a drug that is composed of equal amounts of dextrorotary and levoratory isomers.
Racemic
The lowest serum level of a drug that occurs just before the next dose is to be given.
Trough level
A drug that relaxes the smooth muscle of blood vessels to improve blood flow.
Vasodilator
1 kg
1000 grams
1 g
1000 milligrams
1 mg
1000 micrograms
Some penicillins, some vitamins, and all types of insulin are measured in ........
Units
Nitroglycerin ointment (Nitro-Bid, Nitrol) measured in...
Inches
gutta. gtt. gtts.
drop
1/1000 of the molecular weight of an ion divided by the number of hydrogen ions it reacts with
milliequivalent (mEq)
One part in relationship to the whole, based on a total of 100.
Percentage
a.c.
Before meals
ad lib
as needed
b.i.d.
twice a day
c
with
h.s.
at bedtime
NPO
nothing by mouth
p.c.
after meals
p.r.n.
as needed
q.d.
every day
q.h.
every hour
q.h.s.
at bedtime
q.i.d
four times a day
q.o.d.
every other day
s
without
t.i.d.
three times a day.
mg/kg/day
(milligrams of drug needed per kilograms of body weight per 24-hour period. Pediatric doses.
Written record of a physician's order to the pharmacist.
Medication order
recip
take
Sig.
Write on label
Benzoyl peroxide (Benzac, Clearasil),isotretinoin (accutane), tretinoin (Rentin-A)
Acne drugs
Coal tar (Aqua Tar, Denorex, Tegrin) tazarotene (Tazorac), cyclosporine (Neoral)
Psoriasis drugs
clotrimazole(dessenex, Lotrimin), nystatin (mycostatin), ketoconazole (Nizoral)
Anti-fungal Drugs
hydrochlorothiazide (Hydro DIURIL)
Chlorthalidone (Hygroton)
Metolazone (Zaroxolyn)
Diuretics
K+8, K+10, K-Dur, K-Lyte, Slow-K
Potassium Supplements
amoxicillin (Trimox), cephalexin (Keflex), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin), sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole (sulfa drugs), trimethoprim (Proloprim), Bactrim DS and Septra DS (trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole
Urinary Antibiotics
phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
Urinary Analgesics
bethanechol, oxybutynin (Ditropan
Urinary antispasmodics
terazosin (Hytrin), tamsulosin (Flomax), finasteride (Proscar)
For BPH
sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis)
For ED
cyclosporin (Sandimmune), azathioprine (Imuran)
Immunosuppressants
furosemide (Lasix) inhibits
reabsorption of Na+/water in the
ascending loop of Henle
(causing a profound diuresis
Loop Diuretics
Note that they work on the distal tubule of the nephron
Potassium Sparing Diuretics
The major pathogen causing Urinary Tract Infections
E. coli
the first antibiotics, developed in 1932. These do not “kill” the bacterium, but they inhibit growth by interfering with folic acid absorption which is essential to the bacterial life cycle

sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole
Sulfonamide
amoxicillin
cephalexin (Keflex
– is a cephalosporin
Penicillin
Cipro (ciprofloxacin)
Fluoroquinolones

phenazopyridine (Pyridium) - once a
prescription drug, it can now be purchased OTC

It should not be used to mask urinary symptoms that should be appropriately treated with antimicrobial therapy or surgery
Urinary Tract Analgesics
Used to treat such common urinary conditions as Interstitial cystitis where bladder spasm results in frequency and urgency without any underlying bladder infection
Urinary Tract Antispasmodics
o
Alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs

Flomax (tamsulosin –
an α1 blocker )
Drugs Used to Treat BPH
azathioprine (Imuran)
cyclosporin (Sandimmune
Immunosuppressant Drugs
Tums (contains calcium), Maalox (aluminum + magnesium - “balanced”), Amphojel (aluminum - constipating), Milk of magnesia (magnesium – may produce diarrhea)
Antacids
cimetidine (Tagament), famotidine (Pepcid), ranitidine (Zantac), Pepcid Complete (famotidine + calcium + magnesium
H2 Blockers
omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), pantoprazole (Protonix), rabeprazole (AcipHex)
H+ Ion Pump Inhibitors
simethicone
Anti gas
dicyclomine (Bentyl), Donnatal
Anticholinergics
Compazine (Thorazine), Dramamine, Antivert (meclizine), Transderm- Scop (scopolamine), ondansetron (Zofran), dolasetron (Anzemet), Marinol (dronabinol)
Antiemetics
Meridia, orlistat (Xenical, Alli is the OTC trade name marketed by GSK)
Weight Loss
Milk of magnesia, Dulcolax (bisacodyl), Epsom salts, Surfak, GoLYTELY, Epsom Salts, sennosides (Ex-Lax), psyllium (Metamucil), docusate (Colace), Fleet enema, glycerin suppositories, castor oil
Laxatives
Pepto Bismol (bismuth sulfate), Kaopectate (kaolin and pectin), diphenoxylate (Lomotil), loperamide (Imodium), paregoric, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), doxycycline (Vibramycin), TMP-SMX (Septra),
Antidiarrhea
These are antihistamines which work on the Histamine2 instead of the Histamine1 Receptor (*drugs like Benadryl are used for “normal” allergies which work at the H1 Receptor)
H2 Blockers
These drugs act by directly blocking a K+/H+- ATPase (commonly called the “proton pump” of the gastric parietal cell)
Proton Pump Inhibitors.
bacterium which is highly
associated with the development of Peptic Ulcers
Helicobacter Pylori
Lomotil (diphenoxylate) and Imodium (loperamide)
anticholinergic effects and slow down the bowel
Narcotic Drugs