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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which chemo drugs act as alkylating agents
cyclophosphamide
mechlorethamine
cisplastin
carboplastin
carmustine
lomustine
procarbazine
busulfan
major SE of cyclophosphamide
hemorrhagic cystitis
pretreatment for the potential SE of cyclophosphamide
MESNA
difference in SE between cisplastin and carboplastin
cisplastin: more severe nephro/ototoxicity

carboplastin: more severe myelosuppression
DOC for brain tumors
nitrosoureas (lomustine or carmustine)
produces a disulfiram-like reaction when combined with alcohol
procarbazine
2 chemo drugs with a SE of pulmonary fibrosis
bleomycin and busulfan

(*note that busulfan also has hyperpigmentation)
MOA of methotrexate
inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
DOC to reverse potential SE of methotrexate
leucovorin
SE of methotrexate
myelosuppression, fatty liver, mucositis
what non-cancer conditions can methotrexate also be used for
ectopic pregnancies
rheumatoid arthritis
psoriasis
MOA of 6-MP
blocks de novo purine synthesis
DOC for AML
6-MP
enzyme required for activation of 6-MP
HGPRT
gout drug that when combined with 6MP requires dose reduction
allopurinol
MOA of 5-FU
inhibits thymidylate synthase
drug that causes "thymine-less death" when given with leucovorin rescue
5-FU
chemo drug that is very effective against colon cancer and basal cell carcinoma
5-FU
MOA of cytarabine
blocks DNA polymerase
difference in the MOA of vincristine/vinblastine vs. paclitaxel
vincristine/vinblastine: bind specifically to B-tubulin and block polymerization of the microtubules thus preventing the formation of the mitotic spindle

paclitaxel: stabilizes microtubule formation leading to disassembly with the cells arrested in mitosis (metaphase)
which phase of mitosis due cells remain frozen in when given paclitaxel
frozen in metaphase
2 main cancers that paclitaxel is used to treat
breast and ovarian cancer
MOA of doxorubicin
inhibits topoisomerase II and forms free radicals which cause DNA strand breaks
major SE of doxorubicin
cardiomyopathy
DOC to prevent the major SE associated with doxorubicin
dexrazoxane
DOC for Wilms tumor, Ewing sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcomas
dactinomycin
MOA of bleomycin
causes breaks in the DNA strands via free radical formation ("scissision" and "fragmentation")
this drug has the same MOA as bleomycin but does NOT cause pulmonary fibrosis, but rather SEVERE myelosuppression
mitomycin
MOA of imatinib
inhibits bcr-abl tyrosine kinase
DOC for CML and GIST tumors
imatinib
MOA of rituximab
forms monoclonal antibodies against CD20
MOA of trastuzumab
blocks binding to the HER-2/neu growth receptor
DOC to treat estrogen-positive breast cancer
tamoxifen
SE of tamoxifen
increases risk for endometrial cancer
thromboembolisms
hot flashes
similar drug to tamoxifen that is used in the advanced stages of breast cancer (stage 4)
toremifene
chemo drug that in addition to treating breast cancer, can also treat osteoporosis
raloxifene
acts by blocking the pituitary's secretion of gonadotropins to induce ovulation
clomiphene
aromatase inhibitor used in breast cancer
anastrozole and letrozole
MOA of bevacizumab
blocks the binding of VEGF to its receptors
MOA of hydroxyurea
inhibits ribonucleotide reductase
which cell cycle phase is hydroxyurea specific for
S-phase
non-cancer condition that hydroxyurea is used in
sickle cell
2 major cancers that hydoxyurea is used for
melanoma and CML
major SE of L-asparaginase
acute pancreatitis
MOA of L-asparaginase
converts asparagine to aspartate thus denying cancer cells of the essential amino acid- asparagine
DOC in prostate cancer
flutamide
MOA of flutamide
blocks androgen receptors
4 drug combination used commonly in testicular cancer
bleomycin
vinblastine
etoposide
cisplastin

("BVEC")
5 drug combination used commonly in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
cyclophosphamide
doxorubicin
vincristine
rituximab
prednisone

(*note this is the CHOP regimen)
4 drug combination used commonly in most breast cancers
5-FU
cyclophosphamide
methotrexate
tamoxifen

("5-CMT")
which chemo drugs are cell cycle specific (CCS)
bleomycin
vincristine/vinblastine
5-FU
6-MP
methotrexate
etoposide
which chemo drugs are cell cycle non-specific (CCNS)
all alkylating agents
doxorubicin
nitrosoureas
chemo drugs that are cell cycle specific act on tumor cells throughout all stages of the cell cycle EXCEPT which one?
G0 phase
what is the growth fraction
proportion of tumor cells that are "actively" dividing
how often is pulse therapy given
every 3-4 weeks
what's the log-kill hypothesis
when giving chemo, a constant proportion of the tumor cell population is killed rather than a constant number
difference between the grading and staging of a cancer, and which one is more important to the prognosis
grading: degree of differentiation
staging: degree of spread (metastasis)

*staging is more prognostic
what cancer is cytarabine typically used for
various leukemias
SE of vincristine/vinblastine
neurotoxicity
peripheral neuropathies
foot drop
paralytic ileus
myelosuppression
SIADH
3 major cancers that vinblastine/vincristine is used against
Hodgkin's lymphoma, Wilms tumor, and choriocarcinoma
MOA of etoposide
inhibits topoisomerase II
SE of paclitaxel
myelosuppression and peripheral neuropathies
this chemo drug has a side effect of cerebellar dysfunction
cytarabine
gene mutation expressed by many cancers which provides resistance to various chemo treatments
MDR1 gene
chemo DOC for insulinomas
streptozocin
what 4 chemo drugs make up the MOPP regimen
mechlorethamine
vincristine
prednisone
procarbazine
what 4 chemo drugs make up the ABVD regimen
doxorubicin
bleomycin
vinblastine
dacarbazine
what cancer is the ABVD regimen typically used in
Hodgkin's lymphoma
what 5 chemo drugs make up the CHOP regimen
cyclophosphamide
doxorubicin
vincristine
rituximab
prednisone
what cancer is the CHOP regimen typically used for
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma