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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pharmacodynamics is?
2
drug effect on pt
MOA to get effects
pharmacogenomics is? what does it mean?
pts have diff genes that make pt react to drugs different
chemical antagonists is?
special drug that blocks other drugs
inorganic vs organic drugs?
inorganic are dangerous
organic are weak acid/base
large drug size is limited by what?
being able to move through out body
3 types of drug-receptor interactions to make them bind
covalent
electrostatic
hydrophobic
what is MEC?
minimum effective concentration of drug to see beneficial affects
what happens inside the therapeutic window?
see optimum therapeutic effects
what must you need to know to know about the drug to know where the therapeutic window is? 4
drug absorption, excretion, distribution in body, action/effect of drug
which is usually known, action or effect?
effect, action may be known
which can be seen, action or effect?
effect, action not seen ever
name of how much time drug is in therapeutic window?
duration of action
eneteral vs paraenteral
enteral-through GI
para enteral-not through GI
how is absorption through percutaneous injection? what affects it?
very slow from keratin
percutaneous injection used for what? 2
dermalogical and slow systemic absorption
lipid or water soluble drugs penetrate skin better/faster?
lipid
list 3 enteral routes
sublingual, oral, rectal
which enteral route is fastest?
why?
why not used more often?
sublingual
many blood vessels, thin mucosa
tastes bad
where does oral get absorbed?
where mostly?
stomach
intestines-mostly here
what barrier must an oral dose cross? 2
how/why is this harder?
1-epithelial cells
2-capillaries
tight junctions prevent drug from going between epi cells, must go through cells
what factors can change oral absorption in a single pt? 4
ph level, food level, gastric emptying, other drugs
why is oral so safe?
oral drugs can be recalled by vomitting
oral drugs
3 advantages
advant-safe, cheap, easy
oral drug
5 disadvantages
most important?
slow absorption
diff with pts
need cooperative pt
GI can destroy drug
1st pass metabolism-most important i think
list 6 para enterals
percutaneous, IV, IM, subCut, intranasal, inhalation
IV
absorption rate?why?
controllable?
amount delivered?
high absorption-no barriers, no 1st pass
very controllable
high amounts can be given
5 disadvantages to IV
difficult, high cost, not safe, infection, embolism
subQ absorption rate? why?
duration?
what dictates absorption rate?
slow, less blood flow
long lasting
blood flow
SubQ works well with what type of drugs? 2
non-aqueous
depot preparations
SubQ drawbacks? 2
injury, inconvenient
list 2 major SubQ drugs
insulin
epinephrine
Intramuscular absorptioin rate?
why? barrier?
fast
only barrier is capillary which has fenestrations and thus can go between endo cells
compare capillaries vs epi cells for drug absorption
capillaries have fenestrations and drug can go between cells
epi cells have tight junctions and drug must go through cell
what 2 things dictate Intramuscular absorption?
blood flow
drug solubility-water soluble is faster?
list type of drug given IM-3
list 1 specifically
depot, lipophilic, if cant be given orally
penicillin G
1 major disadvantage of IM
painful
why would you give an inhalation drug?
for local absorption into lungs only, not systemic
what 2 aspects are important with inhalation drugs?
particle size, technique
whole body anesthesia is given how?
inhalation
intranasal injection given for what symptom?
upper respiratory infection
rhinitis
1 problem with intranasal injection
a lot is swallowed
intrathecal injection for?
epidural?
intrathecal-CNS, tumor
epidural-local anesthesia
difference between rate and amount of drug absorption is?
rate=how quickly drug is absorbed
amount=intensity of effect
what must happen first to a drug for it to be absorbed?
must be dissolved
why does high blood flow increase absorption?
it keeps the concentration gradient low by moving any absorbed drug to different area
lipid or water soluble drugs absorb faster?
lipid soluble drugs absorb faster
ionized vs non-ionized different how?
ionized=charged
non-ionized=no charge
how do ionized drugs cross membranes?
slowly/not at all
where do drugs leave vessels and enter interstitium?
capillaries
what is Vd?
volume of distribution
fluid volume drug distributed to
Vd used for?
determining pharmokinetics