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25 Cards in this Set

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This hormone increases the amount of glucose in the blood when it is needed. Located in the liver
glucagon
this hormone suppress both glucagon and insulin when needed
somatostatin
What is responsible for secreting?
beta cells of the pancreas
What is the only cell that do not need insulin to allow glucose to enter?
beta cells of the pancreas
What are the steps involved in insulin secretion?
1. glucose enter beta cells
2. ATP is produced phosphorylates (inhibits) potassium channels
3. leads to alteration of membrane potential
4. Calcium channels open
5. Insulin is secreted
What receptor is responsible for glucose uptake in beta cells?
glut 2 transporter
what receptor is responsible for glucose uptake in non-beta cells?
glut 4 transporter
Which are short acting insulin?
regular
which are rapid acting insulin?
glutisine
lispro
aspart
Which are intermediate acting insulin?
NPH
Which are long-acting insulin?
detemir
glargine
What am I:
Because of fatty acid tail, can bind to albumin
slowly released from albumin to maintain constant level of insulin
detemir
What am I:
soluble at pH 4
crystalizes at pH 7.4
When injected into blood, crystals (hexamer) slowly dissovles to maintain contant level of insulin
glargine
This type of diabetes is due to insulin resistance or diminished insulin secretion
type 2 diabetes
What drugs are sulfonylureas?
glimeperide
glipizide
glyburide
glidazide
What drugs are meglitinides?
repaglinide
nateglinide
What drugs are biguanides?
metformin
What drugs are thiazolidinediones?
rosiglitazone
pioglitazone
What drugs are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?
acarbose
meglitol
What drugs are DPP-4 inhibitors?
sitagliptin
What am I:
binds to SUR1 to block potassium channel resulting in insulin release
sulfonylurea
What am I:
directly blocks potassium channel resulting in insulin release
meglitinides
What am I:
peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR) agonist
decreases circulating free fatty acids
increase expression of circulating adiponectin to increase insulin sensitivity
thiazolidinediones
What am I:
GLP-1 and G4P dimer increase insulin release and ecrease glucagon secretion
this keeps GLP-1 and G4P bound and active
DPP-4 inhibitor
What am I:
competitive reversible inhibitors of pancreatic alpha amylase and membrane bound intestinal alpha-glucosidase hydrolase
prevents/decrease enzymatic hydrolysis of starch/carbs in gut
alpha glucosidase inhibitors