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99 Cards in this Set

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This is an impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis. (You may remember that peristalsis is the movement of the muscles in the alimentary canal to propel the food bolus.) It also affects the ability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The most common symptoms are dysphagia, regurgitation, nocturnal cough, and chest pain.
This is a mental condition characterized by an individual's refusal to eat enough to maintain a minimal body weight, usually fueled by an intense fear of becoming obese.
anorexia nervosa
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. (The term appendix is actually a general term which means a supplementary, accessory, or dependent part of a main structure.)
This is the first, but many individual structures which are found in the body (GI system and elsewhere) can be individually affected by infection which causes inflammation. You will notice that the suffix -itis appears in several disease processes.
The vermiform appendix specifically identifies the diverticulum of the cecum identified in figure 3.1. However, health care professionals commonly drop the term "vermiform" when referring to this particular appendix, except for pathologists.
The absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
Tightly packed, partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetable matter. Seeds, bubble gum, medication, and other materials can mimic true bezoars.
A type of food poisoning which is caused by the production of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum in improperly canned foods. It is characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty seeing, dryness of the mouth and pharynx, dyspepsia, cough, and often results in death.
This is another term for cleft lip or harelip. It is a congenital abnormality.
______________ is the presence or formation of gallstones. __________________ is inflammation of the gallbladder. There are different types of _______________, the most common being chronic and acute. An acute infection generally indicates severe infection and often necessitates a cholecystectomy--which is removal of the gallbladder. This is an extremely common procedure.
_________________ is the presence or formation of gallstones.
__________________ is inflammation of the gallbladder.
This refers to a group of liver diseases in which the normal hepatic structure is destroyed over time by nodules. It is the third leading cause of death in the United States for people 45 to 65 years of age. In the United States it is caused by chronic alcohol abuse. (In other parts of the world it can be caused by untreated and highly communicable strains of hepatitis.)
Inflammation of the colon.
The condition which results from an excessive loss of body water. This can occur on a hot day without a drinking fountain close by, but also occurs when there is vomiting, diarrhea, diabetes, mental disorder, coma, or when a patient is taking diuretic medications (those which promote the excretion of urine). It can be life threatening.
Tooth decay. Although this is a component of the dental specialty, because it directly affects the teeth which are responsible for masticating food, it is significant to the function of the GI system.
dental caries
Abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal discharges. ____________ is actually a symptom which suggests the presence of a disorder. However, it often is short in duration, is easily identifiable by a patient, and often does not require any treatment.
An abnormal bulge, pocket or pouch formed from a hollow or tubular structure. (singular form)
An abnormal bulge, pocket or pouch formed from a hollow or tubular structure. (plural form)
diverticula (NOT diverticuli, which is a common dictation error).
Inflammation of a diverticulum.
The presence of diverticula with the absence of diverticulitis, especially in the colon.
The most common place that a diverticulum occurs is just below the pharynx.
Zenker's diverticulum
Any of a variety of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially the colon. The symptoms include pain in the abdomen, tenesmus, and frequent stools containing blood and mucus.
The most common type of dysentery, due to an ulceration of the bowel caused by amebiasis.
amebic dysentery
The state of being infected by amebae.
General term which means impairment to the power or function of digestion. It often refers to discomfort in the epigastric region following a meal, or what many people call "indigestion."
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine. Often this is combined, i.e., enterocolitis which is the inflammation of both the intestine and the colon.
Inflammation of both the intestine and the colon.
_________ Cholera is a form of enteritis which is spread by food and water contaminated with feces. It is much more common in third world countries.
Inflammation of the esophagus.
An intestinal concretion (the process of becoming harder or more solid) formed around a center of fecal matter.
An abnormal passage or communication between two organs or from an internal organ to the surface of the body. There are several different types. It can occur because of trauma, infection, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, or other causes.
Inflammation of the stomach. This is commonly combined, i.e. gastroenteritis which means acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines. This is often a result of a bacteria, and symptoms include anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weakness. Gastritis is also a problem frequently associated with alcohol abuse.
acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines. This is often a result of a bacteria, and symptoms include anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weakness.
The reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. It is often represented by the acronym ____(4 alpha letters) (_______________ _________ _________). This is usually caused by an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. The major symptom is heartburn, although it can lead to several more severe disorders.
GERD - gastroesophageal reflux disease
Offensive breath. This can be real as the result of ingested substances, gingival disease, fermentation of food in the mouth, or associated with systemic diseases such as diabetic acidosis. It can also be imagined and the result of anxiety disorders, obsessive disorders, paranoia, or hypochondrria.
Inflammation of the liver. ___________ can be due to viral, bacterial, and parasitic factors. They are generally classified by letter, i.e., hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C. Some strains are transmitted through feces/oral contact, some through the blood (IV drug use), and some are sexually transmitted. Hepatitis can be chronic and active, in which case it is often fatal. Some forms are highly contagious.
The protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening. There are several classifications of ____________.
The protrusion of some internal body structure through the abdominal wall.
abdominal hernia
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm. There are both a sliding hiatal hernia and a paraesophageal hiatus hernia.
hiatal hernia
A hernia into the inguinal canal. There are both direct and indirect inguinal hernias.
inguinal hernia
Protrusion of part of the intestine through the umbilicus.
umbilical hernia
Congenital megacolon, or a dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon due to the sustained contraction of the muscles of the rectosigmoid.
Hirschsprung disease
The enlargement of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells.
The temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis, which often leads to obstruction. A common type is adynamic ileus.
A suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony (lack of normal muscle tone or strength). This can be the result of drugs, toxemia, tauma, or surgery.
adynamic ileus
This can be used to describe a variety of bowel disorders which are inflammatory in nature, whose etiology cannot be directly determined. There are two common types of inflammatory bowel disease which you should know: Crohn disease & ulcerative colitis.
inflammatory bowel disease
It is not known what causes Crohn disease; it can affect any part of the GI tract froum the mouth to the anus, but is especially common in the ileocecal area. It frequently leads to obstruction and fistula and abscess formation.
Crohn disease
A chronic, nonspecific, inflammatory, and ulcerative disease which arises in the colonic mucosa, and usually involves the rectum. Its etiology is also unknown and it is most often manifested by bloody diarrhea.
ulcerative colitis
This occurs when a segment of bowel advances and protrudes into the segment distal to it.
Intermittent or constant abdominal distress and bowel dysfunction which has no demonstrable cause.
irritable bowel syndrome
A syndrome characterized by the bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae with a resulting yellow appearance. There are many types of jaundice and most of these indicate a problem with the liver.
A white patch on a mucous membrane that will not rub off. This occurs in the oral mucosa and is considered to be a premalignant (precancerous) lesion, common in smokers.
Impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients. If the body is not absorbing nutrients properly, it can quickly result in an insufficiency of necessary nutrients. The combination of weight loss, diarrhea, and anemia indicate malabsorption.
An acute, highly contagious viral disease which causes painful enlargement of the salivary glands. Primarily infects children under age 15.
The state or condition of being clogged or blocked. In gastroenterology it usually refers to a complete arrest or serious impairment to the passage of intestinal contents. You can probably imagine the physical manifestations of obstructions. They are generally caused by adhesions, hernias, tumors, foreign bodies, inflammatory bowel disease, fecal impaction, and volvulus.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
A plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains an advantage. It is not uncommon for a parasite to be present in foods that are consumed, and they are also communicable via person-to-person contact.
An intestinal protozoa which has a large, sucking disc which adheres to the microvilli of the intestinal walls. The term giardiasis refers to the infection which occurs with the presence of the Giardia parasite. There are many different kinds of parasites. However, except for Giardia, they are much more common in Africa and rarely impact Western medicine.
The term ____________ refers to the infection which occurs with the presence of the Giardia parasite.
Inflammation and ulceration in the duodenum and stomach caused by gastric acid juice. _________ __________ occurs only if the stomach secretes acid.
peptic ulcer disease
_____________ ______________ is a chronic peptic ulcer of the esophagus, and is commonly seen in medical reports.
Barrett esophagus
Inflammation of the peritoneum. Symptoms include abdominal pain and tenderness, constipation, vomiting, and moderate fever. Peritonitis sometimes follows abdominal surgery such as an appendectomy.
Inflammation of the pharynx. This is the most common etiology of a sore throat.
This refers to any mass of tissue that arises from the bowel wall and protrudes into the lumen. They may be either sessile or pedunculated. They vary considerably in size and histologic (microscopic tissue structure) characteristics.
_____________ means attached by a base.
__________________ means attached by a stem-like structure or stalk.
The falling down or sinking of a part. This pathology can affect the GI system through anal prolapse and rectal prolapse (where skin of the anus and mucosa of the rectum protrude through the anus).
__________ means itching. Pruritus ani is intense, chronic itching in the anal region.
pruritus ani
A 2-4 mm mucosal structure, probably congenital in nature, which causes a ring-like narrowing of the lower esophagus.
Schatzki ring
A defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue. There are many kinds of ________, many causes for __________, and many teatments for _________, such as peptic ulcer disease, stress ulcers, ulcerative solitis, etc.
Intestinal obstruction which is due to a knotting or twisting of the bowel.
Attached by a stalk.
A. pedinculated
B. peduncalated
C. peduncullated
D. pedunculated
D. pedunculated
Inflammation of the pancreas.
A. pancreasitis
B. pancreatitis
C. pancretitis
D. pancreacitis
B. pancreatitis
Any mass of tissue arising from the bowel wall and protruding into the lumen.
A. polyp
B. polypsosis
C. polipitis
D. polip
A. polyp
Liver disease.
A. cirrhosis
B. sirrhosis
C. cirrosis
D. cirhosis
A. cirrhosis
Bad breath.
A. hallitosis
B. halitosis
C. halitoses
D. halletosis
B. halitosis
A white patch on a mucous membrane that will not rub off.
A. leukoplasia
B. leucoplakia
C. leucoplacia
D. leukoplakia
D. leukoplakia
An abnormal bulge or pouch formed from a tubular structure.
A. diverticuli
B. diverticulum
C. diverticilim
D. diverticulium
B. diverticulum
A common parasite.
A. Geardia
B. Giardea
C. giardia
D. Giardia
D. Giardia
An intestinal concretion with a fecal center.
A. fecalith
B. fecallith
C. fecolith
D. ficalith
A. fecalith
Impaired absorption of nutrients.
A. dysabsorption
B. mallabsorption
C. malabsorption
D. mallabsorptio
C. malabsorption
Type of food poisoning caused by improperly canned foods.
A. botulism
B. bochulism
C. bochulysm
D. botulysm
A. botulism
When a segment of bowel protrudes into the segment distal to it.
A. intususception
B. intissusception
C. intussuception
D. intussusception
D. intussusception
Tightly packed, partially digested ball of hair.
A. bizoar
B. bezoar
C. bezaor
D. bizaor
B. bezoar
A. dyspepsya
B. dyspepsia
C. dispepsia
D. dispipsea
B. dyspepsia
Excessive loss of body water.
A. dihydration
B. dehidration
C. dehydration
D. dehydraton
C. dehydration
A yellow appearance.
A. jaundice
B. jauntice
C. jaundace
D. janduace
A. jaundice
A 2-4 mm narrowing of the lower esophagus.
A. schatzki ring
B. Schatzki ring
C. schatki ring
D. Shatzki ring
B. Schatzki ring
Diverticula with no diverticulitis.
A. divarticulosis
B. devirticulosis
C. diverteculosis
D. diverticulosis
D. diverticulosis
Enlargement of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells.
A. hypertrophy
B. hypotrophy
C. hypertrophia
D. hypretrophy
A. hypertrophy
Impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis.
A. akalasia
B. achalasia
C. acalasia
D. achalazia
B. achalasia
Attached at the base (as opposed to stalk).
A. sassile
B. sestile
C. sessele
D. sessile
D. sessile
Protrusion of the intestine through the bellybutton.
A. imbilical hernia
B. umbilical hernia
C. umbilicus hernia
D. imbicilic hernia
B. umbilical hernia
The absence or closure of a normal body opening.
A. atresia
B. atrisia
C. atrisea
D. atressia
A. atresia
Frequent, liquid feces.
A. diarhea
B. diarrea
C. diarrheic
D. diarrhea
D. diarrhea
An abnormal passage between two organs.
A. fistula
B. fiscula
C. festula
D. fistchila
A. fistula
Knotting or twisting of the bowel.
A. vulvulus
B. volvolus
C. volvulus
D. volvolous
C. volvulus
Inflammation of the esophagus.
A. esaphagitis
B. esopagitis
C. esophagosis
D. esophagitis
D. esophagitis
Disease causing painful enlargement of the salivary glands.
A. mumps
B. mummps
C. Mumps
D. measles
A. mumps