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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Consists of all of the parts of the body associated with food and water--from the mouth where it enters on down until every nutrient has been absorbed and the waste eliminated.
digestive system
Liquid waste is mostly eliminated through the ___________ ___________ system.
urinary tract
_________ (singular viscus) is often used to designate the individual organs of digestion. However, the term is actually a general term for any organ of the abdominal or thoracic cavity. This would include digestive organs such as the liver and pancreas but also respiratory organs, such as the lungs.
The liver and pancreas are part of the ____________ organs.
The main part of the digestive system is the ______________ canal.
The ____________ canal is also called the GI (gastrointestinal) tract.
___ ________ is the generic term given for the tube which extends from the lips to the anus.
GI tract
GI stands for _______________.
In medicine, the term _______ generally refers to the developing GI tract of an embryo.
From the outside of the body, the term ___________ refers to the part of the body from below the chest to the hips.
The liver and pancreas are large __________ organs.
The innermost part of the alimentary canal is the ___________ (plural:lumina).
The four layers which surround the lumen are:
1. mucosa
2. submucosa
3. muscularis
4. adventitia
Immediately bordering the luminal cavity is the mucosa (one of four layers which surround the lumen). It is modified according to where it is in the body and its resultant function. It performs three primary functions.
1)_____________: the state of being enlarged--or allowing for an increased capacity. This occurs most notably in the stomach.
2)_____________:the process of absorbing or assimilating nutrients, such as in the small intestine, or water as in the colon.
3)_____________:the glandular parts secrete digestive enzymes into the cavity to break down food, such as takes place in the stomach.
1. Distention
2. Absorption
3. Secretion
__________ ___________ means containing many blood vessels.
highly vascular
The third layer which surround the lumen is the muscularis layer. In this layer, the contractions which move food and water through the canal occur. This process is called _______________, and it is made possible by small, circular inner muscles and larger, longitudinal outer muscles. Additionally the muscularis contains ____________ or ____________. These are especially thickened circular muscles which occur in strategic places within the canal to regulate food passage.
valves or sphincters
What is the name of the outer layer of the wall of the alimentary canal (it is one of the four layers which surround the lumen)?
The fourth and final layer which surrounds the lumen is the adventitia. This is the outer layer of the wall of the alimentary canal. It is covered by the _________ or visceral peritoneum.
Essentially, the gastrointestinal tract itself is actually surrounded by another tube called the ______________ cavity.
The coelemic cavity is lined by the ______________ ________________.
parietal peritoneum
On the back (or the dorsal side) the peritoneum itself forms long, thin sheets of tissue which support the GI tract. This is called the ________ mesentery. The covering as it continues around the alimentary canal is called the visceral peritoneum or ___________.
Where two organs are next to each other, double folds of peritoneum called ___________ pass between them to support and transmit vessels and nerves to and from the organs. The ___________ is divided into two sections: the lesser ___________ and the greater ____________.
The __________ omentum extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the underside of the liver.
The ____________ omentum extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon.
abdominal organs which are positioned outside the coelemic cavity and therefore not covered by peritoneum. These are referred to as ______________.
There are some abdominal organs which are positioned outside the coelemic cavity and are therefore not covered by peritoneum. These are referred to as ___________________ and include the pancreas, kidneys, most of the duodenum, and the abdominal aorta.
The __________ is also called oral or buccal cavity.
A _____ is a labium (plural:labia), and lingual means "pertaining to the __________".
The tongue is connected to the floor of the mouth by the ___________ frenulum.
You know that lingua refers to the ___________, and a ____________ is a general term for a membrane which curbs or limits the movement of an organ or part.
Finally, the tongue has many small elevations on it which are called _____________. These are also important in the process of digestion.
The specialty of medicine which deals specifically with digestion and problems associated with it is __________________.