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How might personality psychology best be defined?
scientific study of what makes each of us unique
Personality psychology asks the question:
1.How are we unique as individuals?
2.How and why do individuals behave the way they do?
3.What psychological forces make people who they are?
4.What is the nature of the self?
Which of the following are accurate ways of assessing personality?
1.palm reading
2.physiognomy
3.astrology
4.face reading
Of the following, which is NOT a source of personality theory?
conduction

(analogy, induction, deduction ARE)
Which of the following would be an inductive approach to the study of personality?
After observing people at a party, you decide that extroverts enjoy parties more than introverts.
Statistics are useful to personality psychologists because:
1.they provide concise ways of stating relationships.
2.they help us to quantify large amounts of data.
3.they help us to summarize data.
4.they are tools for understanding associations.
Of the eight perspectives discussed in your text, which of the following is NOT true?
Very few of the perspectives are still regarded as useful.

(They all provide useful information about personality, They each reflect a view of human nature, Research has shown some perspectives to be more useful than others, It is beneficial to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of all eight perspectives ARE)
Roots of personality psychology can be traced to the theater because
actors often portray "characters" or easily recognizable types of people AND the early use of masks indicated fascination with the nature of individuals
An early supporter of psychological testing (and where much testing is still conducted) was
the U.S. Armed Forces
In the 19th century, an important individual in the origin of personality psychology was:
Darwin
Which of the following most emphasized the importance of life-span, longitudinal study of personality?
Murray
The Gestalt tradition emphasized the idea that:
"the whole is greater than the sum of its parts."
If you read of a new "finding" in the newspaper one morning but noticed that only Caucasian
subjects from Seattle were used in the experiment you might not give a lot of credibility to the
study. This would be because of possible __________ limitations.
generalizability
Advances in the field of biological science…
have helped researchers to think more clearly about what personality is.
Gestalt psychologists hold a fundamental belief that
people are more than the sum of their parts.
A nomothetic approach to personality
seeks to formulate general laws.
If you read your horoscope in the morning newspaper and feel strongly that it is a personal
message about how to conduct your day, you may be experiencing the
Barnum Effect.
Nomothetic and idiographic approaches to the study of personality are different in that
nomothetic approaches tend to be more general, while idiographic focus on the unique aspects of the individual.
If we ask everyone in the class to describe the personalities of everyone else they know in the class, and then use these data to form a theory about the personality of college students, we are using
induction
A good theory is everything EXCEPT…
tautological


(IS comprehensive, productive, flasifiable, parsimonious)
When personality psychology uses the term "ego forces," this refers to
the sense of identity or self.
A correlation coefficient is a mathematical index of
the degree of agreement (or association) between two measures AND the degree to which values on one measure predict values on the other
A high, negative correlation between sleep deprivation and anxiety would indicate that
the more sleep deprived a person is, the less likely he/she is to be anxious.
The term temperament, as used in personality psychology, refers to
an individual's characteristic emotional and motivational nature.
The notion that there are personality "types," clusters of characteristics that tend to occur together,
can be traced back to the ancient Greeks, at least.
Darwin's evolutionary theory influenced the development of the field of personality
psychology through
the idea that people are subject to the laws of nature, like other animals.
Margaret Mead's view on the role of culture in personality was influenced by her findings from several different cultures that
in some cultures, both the males and the females had the characteristics that our culture identifies as "masculine."
If a theory is classified as "falsifiable," this means that the theory
could be shown to be false by some type(s) of data.
Research suggests that pets
have personalities that different people may agree on.
What is the definition of the inductive approach?
Reasoning from data obtained by observation to theory
Which of the following statements is true of the unconscious?
Personality psychology struggles to understand how and to what extent the unconscious plays a role in behavior 100%
According to Allport, what is the method by which personality should be studied?
Idiographic
Which term applies to the tendency to believe that vague generalities are a good description of one’s personality?
The Barnum effect
With respect to unconscious forces, personality psychology as a field
struggles to understand how and to what extent unconscious forces play a role in human behavior.
Reliability refers to
the ability of a scale to give consistent results.
Random variation in measurement is termed
error variance
A reliable personality test must have
test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability
Validity refers to
whether a test measures what it is supposed to.
Discriminant validity is established when a test
does not correlate with measures of unrelated constructs. 100%
Suppose you complete a personality questionnaire where scores usually range from 1-35, and you receive a score of "10." Suppose you then take the test again the next day and receive a score of "9.5." This questionnaire appears to have
test-retest reliability.
When choosing items to include in a personality test, one wants items that
correlate with other items in the scale, are normally distributed, and can discriminate between individuals with varying levels of the trait.
In tests that are to be widely employed, the coefficient of internal consistency reliability
generally should be about
.80
Wording of items is sometimes reversed to
avoid response-set biases.
Biases in testing may include
ethnic bias, gender bias, and cultural bias
The most common type of personality test is
self-report
One problem with using observable expressive behaviors as a method of personality
assessment is that
expressive style is often strongly influenced by cultural and social norms.
If you were told that a child was taking a personality test and saw the child drawing a picture,
the most likely conclusion would be that
the child is taking a projective test.
Projective tests do NOT include
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

(ARE sentence completion tests, draw-a-person test, word association tests, and inkblot tests)
If an assessment is not related to what it should not be related to, this is
discriminant validity
Test retest reliability refers to
temporal stability
Demographics include variables such as ___ and are useful in helping us to understand
people's behaviors and personalitie
age and religion
When a person is given a stack of cards naming various characteristics and asked to sort them into piles on a dimension such as "least characteristic" to "most characteristic" of oneself, this is termed a
Q-sort.
The promising technique that can show brain activity by recording the brain's use of radioactive glucose is called
Positron emission tomography
Which personality perspective is most closely associated with the use of projective testing approach
psychoanalytic
An important difference between projective techniques and self-report measures is their reliance on
the willingness of the examinee to disclose personal information overtly and the interpretation skills of the examiner
An "acquiescence response set" refers to the tendency of people filling out questionnaires to
have a bias toward saying "yes" or "agree" to questions.
Which of the following approaches to the construction of a self-report test will eliminate or reduce the effect of the social desirability response set?
including an assurance that the scores will be kept confidential
The use of multiple methods to assess an individual's personality
allows limitations of any single method to be minimized.
If a researcher is interested in determining the degree of association between intelligence and grades in school, then the most appropriate research method to use is
a correlational design
A correlational design can be useful because it helps to determine
the strength of the relationship between two variables.
An experiment is
the only research design that allows for causal inferences.
In an experiment, a ___ group is a comparison group that does not receive the treatment administered to the ___ group.
control; treatment
Which of the following could NOT be completed by a participant's mother as an other-report assessment?
a projective test
Why is reliability important in the study of personality?
Low reliability shows that there is limited precision in a measure, Without good reliability it is impossible to know if a measure is validly measuring what it is supposed to be measuring, and Low reliability would make it impossible to track changes and draw inferences
Which of the following statements best describes a social desirability response set?
A bias to pick responses that the respondent believes are expected by society
What is one reasonable criticism of projective personality tests?
They are highly subjective, and have problems with reliability and validity
Which of the following in an example of a questionnaire self report measure?
MMPI
Which of the following is NOT a biological measure?
Rorschach

(PET, MRI, EEG, and fMRI ARE)
What is a limitation of the demographic and lifestyle method?
Can tell little about the individual person
What is a definition of a case study?
A study in which information is gathered about one individual
What is a major limitation of correlational studies?
They cannot provide information about causal relationships among variables
What is the biggest strength of experimental designs that other designs lack?
Experimental designs have the ability to show cause and effect relationships
Sigmund Freud was formally trained as a
biologist and physician
"Hysteria," common in the 1800s, most often exhibited itself through the following symptom(s)
paralysis and functional anesthesias.
According to Freudian theory, how might dreams be similar to icebergs?
A small part shows and much is hidden.
Freud referred to __________ as the "royal road to the unconscious."
dreams
Freudian theory uses the term "libido" to refer to
the psychic energy that is the basis of drive or motivation.
The __________ operates under the "pleasure principle," while the __________ operates under the "reality principle."
id; ego
According to Freudians, why do "Freudian slips" occur more often when we are tired or distracted?
Defenses are down and the unconscious slips out.
From Freud's perspective, a likely reason for someone to become fixated at the oral stage is
he/she was weaned too early.
Someone who is fixated at the anal stage might
have passive-aggressive tendencies and be overly fastidious and neat.
A phobia is
an irrational fear.
The period between the phallic and genital stages is called the __________ stage.
latency
The Oedipal complex occurs during the __________ stage.
phallic
The ego-protective defense mechanism in which traumatic events are forgotten is called
repression.
A current controversy that is relevant to the idea of repression deals with
implantation of false memories by therapists.
Reaction formation is when
unacceptable urges are transformed into their "opposites."
Rudy has unconscious urges to take things that are not his. He has never actually stolen anything, however. He works as a security guard at the mall and is very good at his job because he is very suspicious of others—he sees evidence of thieves all around him. In fact, almost every time he sees an unfamiliar face, he believes the individual to be dishonest and looking for something to snatch. Rudy's ego-defense mechanism is
projection.
Jewel does not get along with her employer, and today she found out that she is going to be demoted next week. She didn't confront her boss; instead, when she got home, she yelled at her children and spanked her youngest child for a minor wrongdoing. Jewel's behavior is a classic example of
displacement
Sublimation occurs when
unhealthy urges are transformed into socially acceptable behaviors.
Regression in adults
is difficult to document.
If Kathleen moves to another state (where her boyfriend also happens to reside) but she states that he had nothing to do with her decision, and that her only reason for moving is that she prefers the climate in the new state, she is most likely to be using __________ as an ego defense mechanism.
rationalization
One successful way of uncovering memories in psychoanalysis is
free association
Freud argued that the essence of personality was formed by the age of
five.
When Freud commented that "sometimes a cigar is just a cigar" he was referring to the fact that
it was not a lack of ego-control that led men to smoke.
Psychoanalysts would most likely predict which of the following outcomes in adulthood for a child who was severely punished every time he dirtied his diapers?
a tendency to save things, like a "pack-rat"
The combination of a strong id and superego, along with a weak ego describes the
authoritarian personality.
Which is NOT one of the five Freudian stages of psychosexual development?
vaginal

(include oral, phallic, anal, and latency)
The fact that there are lots of jokes about and euphemisms for the penis supports
Freud's idea that repressed sexual drives underpin much of what we do.
In Freud's usage, a "defense mechanism" has the effect of
protecting the person's consciousness from threatening material.
Explaining great creativity like da Vinci's in terms of a re-direction of tremendous sexual energy describes a process of
sublimation.
According to Freud, penetration into the neurosis of a woman is likely to reveal
a repressed wish to possess a penis.
A stressed woman who hides from her problems by climbing into her (older) husband's lap for comfort may be showing which defense mechanism?
regression
Which trait is not associated with the anal character type?
dependency
(parsimony, inflexibility, orderliness , and obstinacy ARE)
Freud believed that dreams had two aspects, their
manifest and latent content.
Freud's theory focused on sexuality MOST LIKELY because
Freud was interested in finding a scientific understanding of sexual energy and Freud was ashamed of his own sexual desires.
What is the technique of “free association?”
Spontaneous and free-flowing association of thoughts and feelings
Freud’s view on free will is that:
Humans do not have free will, but are driven by unconscious motivations
What is the “id?”
The part of personality that is unsocialized and only concerned with basic needs
Which situation best describes the actions of the super ego?
A married man away from home on a business trip declines an invitation to the hotel room of an attractive female colleague because his religious beliefs deem
What best describes behaviors that would result from a fixation in the oral stage of development?
Smoking, biting, chewing and sucking hard candy
Which is the term given to the female version of the “Oedipus Complex?”
Electra Complex
An overweight woman who has a secret stash of candy in her office at work constantly criticizes everyone else about their calorie and fat intake and is always passing around the newest fad diet book to all her coworkers. Which of Freud’s defense mechanisms best describes this situation?
Reaction Formation
In Freud’s view, what is the major factor motivating most of human behavior?
Sexual urges
What is the “latent content” of a dream, according to Freud?
Its underlying hidden meaning
The term "neo-analytic" means
new analysis.
Neo-analytic approaches to personality psychology build on
Freud's personality theory.
In childhood, Jung's ability to take the perspective of a rock
was displacement of phallic imaginings.
Jung believed that dreams and "visions"
were important communications from another realm.
Which of the following is NOT a division of the psyche according to Jung?
the paraconscious

(the personal unconscious, the collective unconscious, and the conscious ego ARE)
Jung believed the "mind" is comprised of __________ parts.
three
Thoughts that Freud would term "preconscious" would fall into which of Jung's categories?
personal unconscious
Which of the following (underlined) thoughts/experiences might be found in the "personal unconscious"?
Angela has an exam to study for later this week, but has opted not to think about it until after Wednesday; Matt had a fight with his girlfriend yesterday, but when surfing he puts it out of his mind; Paige does not think about her grocery list while she is doing a math problem.
Archetypes are
powerful emotional symbols rooted in our human history.
The animus represents __________, while the anima represents __________.
the male element of a woman; the female element of a man
Little Evelyn was caught stealing by her mother. As she tried to defend herself she said, "I
didn't mean to do it _ my 'evil twin' took over." Evelyn is evoking the __________ archetype.
Shadow
According to Jung, the socially acceptable front that we present to others is called the
persona
A complex is
a group of emotionally-charged thoughts & feelings about a topic.
Brian is struggling with himself. He's always been a good student, but lately his grades have been slipping a little bit. He feels like he has nothing in common with those who were once close friends, and yet he doesn't seem to "fit in" with any other crowd. He will be finishing his degree in history next year, but lately he's been wondering whether he really wants to be an historian (and he feels silly that he's wasted so much valuable time on something that he might not even want to do for the rest of his life). His girlfriend wants to get married after graduation, and he had planned to give her a ring over the Christmas break; but lately he's been feeling like marriage should wait – he wants to have time to explore the world and "discover" himself before settling down. Brian seems to have
an identity crisis.
Which of the following is NOT one of Jung's proposed functions of the mind?
wishing
(feeling, intuiting, thinking, and sensing ARE)
Jung described two major "attitudes," which were
extroversion and introversion.
A superiority complex is often a reaction to
an inferiority complex
Adler's primary difference with Freud concerned
Adler's rejection of sexuality as the prime motivator.
The concept of "masculine protest" describes
individual striving for competence and independence.
Which of the following are among the social issues Adler believed everyone had to address?
occupational tasks, love tasks, societal tasks
Adler's typology was based on
the four Greek humors and social interest/activity level.
The importance of birth order was discussed by
Adler
Horney believed that what women really wanted was
power.
Which of the following was NOT one of Horney's proposed styles of adapting to the world?
open style.
(passive style, withdrawn style, and agressive style ARE)
To Horney, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help the person
accept his/her "real self."
"Basic anxiety" refers to
a child's fear of being alone.
Who of the following was an object relations theorist?
Mahler
Chris is two years old and well-adjusted. His attachment to his mother is healthy, and he is a happy child. Mahler would say that he is a __________ child.
normal symbiotic
Who, in his therapy, often played the role of "therapist qua parent" in an attempt to help patients develop a healthy self-concept and overcome their narcissism?
Kohut
A relational perspective suggests that
initial patterns of self-other relations influence our self-concepts and social relations later in life.
Erikson believed that the first crisis an individual must struggle with is
trust vs. mistrust.
Erikson's theory of development focuses on the idea that
growth involves stages in which we resolve conflicts throughout life.
Erikson's theory is unique and particularly well known for its focus on
the importance of identity, continued development in adulthood, the significance of life crisis for encouraging personal growth, and development over the life-span.
Who of the following has successfully negotiated Erikson's stage of Intimacy vs. Isolation?
Nathan has a few close friends and just married the woman he has been dating for 4 years.
According to Jung, the collective unconscious consists essentially of
archetypes.
The theorist who expanded psychoanalytic theory to include the life-span was
Erikson.
The concept of "basic anxiety" was formed by which theorist?
Horney
Although neo-analytic psychologists base their theories on psychoanalytic theory, they differ
from psychoanalytic theory in the following way(s):
They are more interested in the "self" and in the social environment.
According to Jung the mind is divided into three parts. These three parts are:
The ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious
Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious differs from Freud’s concept of the unconscious in that
Jung’s theory includes archetypes that are common to all people and were formed in the beginning of time
The shadow archetype is best described as
The dark, socially unacceptable part of personality
Adler coined the term _______________to encompass his theory of psychology.
Individual Psychology
Adler’s theory of psychology focused on…
Unique motivations of individuals and the importance of each person’s perceived niche in society
A boy goes to math class every day and tries to understand the problems. Each day he falls further and further behind the rest of the class as the problems get harder. Later in life the boy is afraid of taking math classes and chooses a college major that requires the least amount of math. According to Adler what has this boy developed?
Inferiority complex
A woman who grew up being constantly ridiculed for her fashion choices now tells all her friends what to wear, what the latest fashion styles are and how they should present themselves. Every opinion she has on fashion is right and she is quick to defend herself and her arguments. According to Adler what has this woman developed?
Superiority complex
Organ inferiority refers to…
Everyone is born with some physical weakness
Karen Horney is known for her…
Feminist views and rejection of the concept of penis envy, Basic anxiety, a child’s fear of being alone, the real self, the inner core of personality that we perceive about ourselves
In Horney’s view, a person who adapts to the world by being compliant has adopted which style of adaptation?
Passive style
Which of the following characterizes Object Relations Theories?
Theories that have to do with how people learn about themselves and others through interactions with other people
Erikson’s theory differed from Freud’s theory in that
Erikson’s theory extended development through adulthood
Erikson’s stage of Trust vs. Mistrust is best described as…
The first stage, in which a baby learns to either trust or mistrust that his/her needs will be taken care of
Erikson’s concept of an identity crisis refers to what?
A failure to overcome an ego crisis which results in the inability to know who he or she is, and the struggle to find out
According to Darwin, individual differences
can aid in passing on one's genes to offspring, can be adaptive, have a function in survival, and have a genetic basis
Behavioral genomics is the study of
how genes affect behavior.
"Temperament" refers to
stable individual differences in emotional reactivity.
All of the following EXCEPT __________ is considered one of the four basic aspects of temperament.
energy

(agressiveness/impulsivity
activity, emotionality, and
sociability ARE)
According to Eysenck's theory, an extrovert, if exposed to annoying external stimuli, would
be less bothered by it than would an introvert.
The behavioral activation system is responsible for
regulating our response to rewards.
Individuals with defects or weaknesses in their dopamine systems may be susceptible to
addiction.
Individuals who have a relatively more active right hemisphere (compared to what is typical) are more likely to
overreact to a negative stimulus.
One of the first scientists to explore possible genetic links for personality, who tried to separate the effects of genetics and environment by looking at adopted twins, and who began the eugenics movement, was named __________.
Francis Galton
The Cinderella phenomenon describes
the tendency for biological children to be treated better than stepchildren.
Locke's idea of tabula rasa implies that
everyone is born as a "blank slate" upon which personality is stamped by life experiences.
Locke suggested that at birth, we are
"blank slates."
How does the case of Angelman syndrome demonstrate a genetic influence on personality?
People with Angelman syndrome are almost always happy and cheerful.
What does a "lie detector" have to do with Eysenck's biological theory of temperament?
It can be used to measure levels of physiological arousal in people, and Eysenck posits that introverts are more physiologically aroused at baseline.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Zuckerman's "sensation seeking"?
preferences for large crowds of people

(tendency to actively engage environments, seeking out highly stimulating activities, seeking out novel experiences, and willingness to try new things ARE)
Judith Rich Harris has suggested that
peers are more important influences on children than parents are.
Non-shared environmental influences may include
peer relationships, birth order, and children's different experiences within the home.
Which of the following might link biology to personality?
Temperament is genetically programmed, and is a personality precursor, Our looks might influence how others treat us and thus how our personalities form, and Temperament influences the environments we choose, and thus the experiences that mold us.
In regard to the biological determination of homosexuality,
some structural differences have been found when comparing the brains of homosexual with heterosexual men.
One possible way that homosexuality might have been selected for through evolution is by
kin selection
Where did the phrase "mad as a hatter" come from?
Hat makers were poisoned by mercury in hat factories and madness was a symptom.
Which of the following can affect observable personality?
use of legal drugs (e.g. Halcion) or illegal drugs (e.g. LSD), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and strokes, poisoning by metals, including mercury, manganese, and lead, and major surgeries, such as coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)
The textbook argues that there should be a field of study called "personality toxicology" which would mean that experts would study
the effects of environmental toxins on personality.
Which of the following is NOT an example of someone actively creating an environment?
John was born into a large family and he likes this because he has lots of siblings to play with, study with, and talk with.
Kretschmer, the first to systematically study the relationship between physical appearance and personality, believed that schizophrenics were more likely to
be thin.
Which of the following is a correct match between Sheldon's somatotype and its description?
ectomorphs: thin and studious
Why might victims of serious burns or other disfiguring ailments tend to be shy?
Other people might avoid them, thus they have fewer opportunities to interact and practice their social skills.
Research has shown that, in general, physically attractive people are assumed to be
kinder and more successful than their less attractive peers.
Social Darwinism supports the notion that
"superior" societies have the right to invade and conquer "lesser" societies.
A major study done at the University of Minnesota, studying identical twins raised apart, has found
impressive similarities in personality between people who have the same genetic makeup.
Jenny is not a particularly happy toddler. She is easily frightened, and seems to be easily irritated. Her mother reports that she's not a lot of trouble, however, as she spends most of her time playing quietly by herself or watching TV; in fact her mother often has to encourage her to play with the other children in her day-care group. Describe Jenny on each of the following temperamental dimensions: 1) activity; 2) emotionality; 3) sociability.
low; high; low
Which of the following arguments points to non-genetic factors in the incidence of schizophrenia?
Many identical twins of schizophrenics do not develop the disease.
Biological factors which probably are related to personality are
chromosomes, levels of mercury or lead in the body, central nervous system arousal level, chromosomes.
2. levels of mercury or lead in the body.
3. central nervous system arousal level. chromosomes.
2. levels of mercury or lead in the body.
3. central nervous system arousal level. chromosomes.
levels of mercury or lead in the body.
3. central nervous system arousal level. hormones.
If we postulate that introverts are innately at a higher level of central nervous system arousal, this is an application of
Eysenck's linking of the dimension of introversion to biology.
Bem's "exotic becomes erotic" is a theory explaining
social influences on sexual preferences.
Tropisms are
motivational forces influencing individuals' health behaviors.
an individual who is interested in experimenting with drugs, going skydiving, and traveling to exotic places is probably
high in sensation-seeking.
Behavioral genomics is the study of what?
How behavior is affected by genes
Activity, Emotionality, Sociability and Impulsivity refer to what?
Four basic aspects of temperament
Eysenck's model of temperament relies heavily on which biological system of the body?
The nervous system
Identical twins differ from fraternal (non-identical) twins in what way?
Identical twins come from one fertilized egg that splits; fraternal twins come from two separately fertilized eggs.
What biological factors can affect a person's personality and behavior?
psychoactive drugs, environmental toxins (such as mercury poisoning), organic diseases (such as Alzheimer's), and genetic disorders (such as Angelman Syndrome)
Sally is outgoing and responsible. She has worked at the same job since graduating college and still socializes with the same people she met in college. She has been married for 15 years to an outgoing and kind man. Jane, on the other hand, is unpredictable and has a hot temper. She has been fired from four jobs and has never stayed in a job for more than a year without getting bored and quitting. She has been divorced once, after being married for only 18 months to a violent and volatile man. These two women live extremely different lives, and their personalities lead them to experience different types of environments and situations. Which term best describes the phenomenon in which these two women consistently experience different environments and situations?
Tropisms
Which of the following is the best definition of nonshared environmental variance?
The aspects of the environment that children raised in the same home experience differently
In Pavlov's early classical conditioning experiments, food was the __________, and a bell which was originally a neutral stimulus became a __________ when paired with the food.
unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
In the following scenario, what is the conditioned stimulus? "Miles is an extremely smart dog. His owner always feeds him dog food from a can, which the owner opens using an electric can-opener. Whenever Miles hears the sound of the electric can opener, he runs into the kitchen and over to his food bowl."
the sound of the can opener
When a conditioned response occurs in response to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus, this is called
generalization.
When an individual is able to discern that a given stimulus is NOT the conditioned stimulus, and therefore does not perform the conditioned response, this is called
discrimination.
From the behaviorist perspective, the term "extinction" refers to
a "dying out" of a conditioned response when it is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
in the dogs that he worked with, Pavlov was able to classically condition something similar to which personality dimension?
neuroticism
The behaviorist movement rejected what practice of psychology?
subjective self-report and introspection
After little Albert was conditioned to fear the rat, he
cried at the sight of a rat, showed fear of other furry objects like a rabbit and a fur coat, generalized his fear of the rat to similar objects, and demonstrated an emotional reaction to a formerly neutral/positive stimulus (the rat).
The researcher credited with applying behaviorist principles to elicit fear in a young child, "little Albert," was
Watson
When Jones extinguished Peter's fear of the rabbit by gradually bringing it closer and closer while keeping Peter happy and relaxed, he demonstrated
systematic desensitization.
Who developed the concept of "classical conditioning"?
Pavlov
Who developed the concept of "operant conditioning"?
Skinner
The central idea behind the concept of operant conditioning is that
behavior is changed by manipulating its consequences.
Walden Two is conceptualized as a problem-free place because
the government uses only positive reinforcement
Radical determinism states that
all behavior is caused by the environment.
Although Hull believed in the importance of environmental reinforcements for learning, he
also believed that the internal state of the organism was important.
__________ are credited with the creation of social learning theory.
Dollard & Miller
When a primary drive impels someone toward a behavior and a secondary drives impels the person away from that same behavior, __________ develops.
an approach-avoidance conflict
When a person is faced with one of the three drive conflicts described by Dollard and Miller, the inability to satisfy these conflicts leads to
neurotic behavior.
Dollard and Miller's learning theory explains neurotic behavior in terms of
approach-avoidance conflicts.
If you suffered from arachnophobia (extreme fear of spiders) you might seek the help of a therapist in overcoming your problem. Which of the following would be a legitimate method of treatment?
systematic desensitization
Superstitious behaviors, such as wearing a lucky ring or eating special foods prior to an important event are best explained by
learning through reinforcement.
According to Skinner, to maximize one's potential, one should
arrange his/her environment to reinforce productive behavior.
Skinner asserts that human feelings
are caused by environmental events.
Skinner's broad vision for the design of society
is based on the principles of operant conditioning.
How does the extinction of a response occur?
The conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
A client comes to a therapist complaining of a great fear (phobia) of heights. The therapist first has the individual describe and think about increasingly high places. Next he goes with the client to the first floor of a tall building, all the while encouraging and reassuring. They spend time looking out the window until the client is comfortable, then they go up one floor. Gradually they work their way up to the top floor of a very high skyscraper. The treatment method the therapist is employing is called
systematic desensitization
Of the following reinforcement schedules, which is most effective in terms of creating a behavior that is resistant to extinction?
partial reinforcement
The first time Jeannie went to Las Vegas she won $1,000 playing slot machines. She has not won any money since that first trip, yet she still takes regular trips to Las Vegas. Her experience winning on that one occasion is an example of
partial reinforcement.
One thing that learning theories have in common with Freud's approach is that they
are deterministic.
Learning theorists would treat drug addiction by
making the consequences of drug use very unpleasant.
Limits of the learning approach to understanding personality include
a tendency to refuse any notion of enduring dispositions with in individuals, a tendency to view humans as objects to be trained, reluctance to incorporate insights gained from advances in cognitive and social psychology,
dehumanization of unique human potentials by comparing people to rats.
Which of the following is a difference between classical conditioning (as defined by Pavlov) and operant condition (as defined by Skinner)?
Classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of existing responses to occur to new stimuli, but operant conditioning deals with shaping new behavior by using consequences.
"Pavlov's dog" refers to what?
An experiment in which a dog was conditioned to salivate at the signal that food was coming, before the food was presented
How is negative reinforcement different from positive reinforcement?
Negative reinforcement increases the probability of a behavior reoccurring by taking something away, positive reinforcement increases the probability of a behavior by adding something.
Secondary or acquired drives are best explained as what?
Acquired responses to situations similar to an original situation that induced a certain feeling
Which of the following is NOT one of the central tenets of Gestalt psychology?
When presented with information we strive to ignore things that we have not experienced before.
Lewin's "field theory" focused on the separateness vs. overlapping nature of aspects of a person's life, which he called __________.
life space.
In the rod-and-frame test, people that align the bar with the frame rather than making it vertical are __________ and would probably __________ in the body-positioning task.
field dependent; tilt to align with the room
The word "gestalt" means
pattern or configuration.
Julie is a successful interior decorator. She says that her success is due to her ability to envision the "big picture" and to create beautiful rooms without becoming too focused on small particulars with in the room. For instance, she can accurately place shelving above the fireplace, despite the fact that the fireplace bricks are crooked and sloping. She is most likely
field independent.
A field dependent person is more sensitive to __________ than a field independent person.
context of a problem, his or her own intuitions,
holistic characteristics of a problem, social and interpersonal cues
A person's placement on the field-dependence continuum has NOT been associated with
life success.
In general (at the group level),
females are somewhat more field dependent than males
Schemas
are bundles of information that guide us and help us understand the world.
Schemas were first discussed by
Piaget.
Our abilities to categorize stimuli are severely challenged when
we encounter objects not even remotely similar to what we've experienced before.
Stereotypes and prejudice are examples of the useful process of __________ becoming harmful.
categorization
How we allocate our attention is a function of
a combination of current goals and a few salient environmental features.
Individuals with attention-deficit disorder (ADD)
often fail to shift their attention appropriately from task to task, are often able to concentrate intensely on a task that interests them, may have difficulty disengaging from some stimulus, and may be less sensitive to social cues.
Kelly's personal construct theory posits that
people actively endeavor to make sense of their worlds.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences states that everyone has at least __________ different intelligences.
7
Which of the following is NOT one of Gardner's multiple intelligences?
conscientious intelligence
Cantor & Kihlstrom's idea of "social intelligence" describes
individual variation in social and interpersonal skills
Individuals with an optimistic explanatory style
often see neutral events as positive, and find the "silver lining" in bad situations.
Individuals with a pessimistic explanatory style
tend to have lower expectations for the future, based on pessimistic explanations of the present, tend to focus on the negative aspects of situations, are more likely to be depressed, tend to believe that there is little they can do to avoid bad outcomes.
Joyce recently lost her young son, and the experience was devastating. She was comforted, however, by the fact that her son's organs helped four other children to live longer. She now volunteers with children at a local day-care center, which reminds her of her son, and she is thankful that she had six years of happiness with him. Joyce's explanatory style is
optimistic
Bandura's self-system is
the way a person perceives, evaluates, and regulates his/her own behavior so that it is appropriate and so that goals are achieved.
When a behavior is learned after seeing another person perform the behavior, this is called
observational learning.
Which of the following is true of Bandura's "Bobo doll " studies?
Children who saw aggressive behavior by adults were more aggressive themselves.
Which of the following influence whether or not a model's behavior will be repeated by an observer?
desirability of the behavior itself, outcome expectancies , model's similarity to the observer, and the salience of the behavior
Self-efficacy is
a belief about how competent one is to perform a behavior.
Which of the following is the most important in influencing self-efficacy?
past successes and failures
According to Rotter, which of the following affect behavior?
reinforcement values and outcome expectancies
When do we tend to weigh generalized expectancies most heavily?
in novel situations
Learned helplessness describes a situation in which
individuals believe that they are unable to control of what happens to them.
Under a cognitive approach, thought processes are viewed as
a cause of behavior.
Bandura's view of modeling is that it
is the primary way that cultural behavioral repertoires are acquired, is an efficient and prevalent way of transmitting and modifying behavior, can result in new behaviors in an individual, can strengthen or inhibit responses in an individual.
Bandura states that traditional behaviorism requires that ________ for learning to occur
the response be reinforced or punished during learning
When John meets new people, he immediately thinks about whether he has greater intellectual capacity than they do. George Kelly's theory would suggest that
John has a construct for smart vs. dumb.
In George Kelly's theory, what guides a person's behavior?
the constructs an individual has and his/her expectations and interpretations of the environment
A term used to describe schema for a familiar event is
script.
People low in __________ see the world in more absolute and simple terms.
cognitive complexity
Different subtypes of ADHD include all of the following EXCEPT
Hyper-attentive type
ADHD is normally diagnosed
based on observed behavior
People have been using traits to describe others for
thousands of years.
Carl Jung's definition of extroversion included
a focus on things outside the self.
A personality measure based on Jung's introversion and extroversion is the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Q-data and L-data refer to
questionnaire data and life data.
The essence of Allport's trait approach is best described as what?
A trait is an internal structure that causes different stimuli to appear to be equivalent in their meaning thus leading people to react to situations that appear to be similar in similar ways.
Which of the following is NOT one of the big five traits?
Curiosity
In what way(s) are motives different from traits?
Motives are psychobiological forces that help induce a particular behavior, Motives underlie observable traits, Motives are more basic than traits, Motives involve a goal.
Cattell used __________ to organize adjectives into trait-categories.
factor analysis
Who referred to personality as the "dynamic organization with in the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought"?
Allport
A trait approach to personality is primarily focused on
the characteristics of the person.
The behaviorist work of Skinner particularly bothered
Allport.
Allport's "common traits" are traits
that many people share.
__________ dispositions are traits unique to the individual while __________ dispositions exert an overwhelming influence on behaviors.
Personal; cardinal
According to __________, it would be important to understand the origins of motivations or strivings.
Allport
The term "proprium" refers to
the inner core of someone's personality.
Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five?
pessimism

(openness, neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness ARE)
How might we determine whether or not the "Big Five" really exist?
all of these may help to demonstrate their reality
Of the following, which make up Eysenck's "big three"?
neuroticism, extroversion, and psychoticism
Individuals who are neurotic tend to be
high-strung and tense.
Individuals who are open to experience tend to be
creative
The founder of a motive-based study of personality was
Murray
According to Murray, a person's "Basic Needs" include
Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation, Need for Exhibition, and Need for Power.
Charismatic people often tend to be
emotionally expressive.
Expressive people are often perceived as
attractive.
Dominant people tend to
speak more loudly.
Which of the following describes one possible strength of the trait and skills approach to personality?
It simplifies personality to a small number of basic dimensions.
Eysenck would combine Cattell's factors of outgoingness and assertiveness and call this
extroversion
If you are interested in defining, as simply as possible, what makes a "good friend," you might list all of the things you value in a friend, and then use a statistical procedure based on correlations to narrow all of these down into just a few basic categories or dimensions. This type of analysis is called
factor analysis.
Need for power (n Power) is best described as what?
The need for others to follow your lead.
"Heidi is aggressive and extroverted." This statement describes Heidi in terms of
traits
According to McCrae and Costa, the Big 5 factors of personality are
extroversion, neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.
A significant criticism of the Five Factor Model is that
five is too few factors to describe personality.
One characteristic that differentiates Eysenck's conceptualization of the major traits from the Big Five approach is that Eysenck attempts to take into account
underlying biological influences.
A zero acquaintance is someone who
we have never interacted with.
According to Allport, traits
are consistent and stable properties; behavior varies and changes over time and across situations.
For therapy to be successful, Rogers argues that the therapist must
communicate the client's internal frame of reference back to him/her, demonstrate unconditional positive regard for the client, empathize with the client, and understand the client fully.
According to Carl Rogers, a psychologically healthy person is one who
has a broad self-concept that can understand and accept many feelings and experiences.
Which of the following statements BEST describes the term "experiencing person"?
important issues are defined by each person in the context of the total range of things the person experiences
Which of the following best applies to the existentialist view?
Existentialists are nondeterministic; people are not cogs in some vast machine.
When we are immature and alienated, the world is seen as one big breast, and we are the sucklers. This is the view of
Erich Fromm.
Self-actualization, an important component of an existentialist/humanistic approach to personality, was first proposed by
Jung.
The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was designed to assess
self-actualization.
Which approach to personality, as applied to the workplace, is associated with protecting humans' relations with an unsullied, unpolluted natural eco-sphere, concern with the individual worker's self-development, and concern with the feelings and ideas of small groups of workers?
existential/humanistic
Love, according to Fromm,
needs to be developed over time with humility and discipline.
Which of the following instances shows support for Fromm's idea of existential alienation?
an increase in anxiety and depression as our society becomes more individualistic and consumerist
Abraham Maslow called humanistic psychology the
third force.
The idea that people's perceptions or subjective realities are considered to be valid data for investigation is termed a _________ perspective.
phenomenological
Which of the follow statements best describes the humanistic perspective on personality?
People are individual, creative, spontaneous, and active beings.
Which of the following is a major weakness of Maslow's perspective?
it is hard, if not impossible, to study objectively
Maslow stated that psychoanalysis and behaviorism were the first two "forces" and that __________ was the "third force."
humanism
Humanism emphasizes
that we strive to achieve fulfillment and to create our futures, the personal worth of the individual, the creative, active, spontaneous nature of humanity, and the importance of human values.
The American Paradox refers to the discrepancy between
Americans' material wealth and moral decline.
The "American Paradox" can best be described as what?
America is industrialized with ample materials humans need, yet our society faces social recession and psychological depression.
The dialogue in which each person confirms the other as being unique and important is what philosopher Martin Buber called the
"I-Thou" dialogue.
According to your textbook, in the debate between B. F. Skinner and Rollo May, who was proved right?
They were both right.
Maslow based his theories on the study of
well-adjusted people.
During __________, time may seem to stop and the immediate environment may recede.
a peak experience
Which of the below characterize an existentialist's view of human perception?
Perception is to some degree dependent on the meaning an individual attaches to stimuli.
Which of the following statements best describes positive psychology?
It is a movement that is primarily concerned with positive aspects of humans (such as creativity and hope) and less oriented toward negative aspects (such as hate and aggression).
Maslow discussed sex as a(n) __________ and respect from others as a(n) __________.
physiological need; esteem need
In the 1960s and 1970s, which approach to personality often meant hippie communes in the woods, with encounter groups, body massage, meditation, organic health foods, and communing with nature?
existential/humanistic
According to Maslow, self-actualized people
are independent, are highly ethical, have strong ethical principles, have a love of humankind.
According to Rogers, a healthy person
has a broad self-concept and is open to many feelings and experiences.
According to Fromm, the most mature and healthy personality is one that
transcends everyday life and is productive, creative, respectful, and loving of others.
What was the name that Murray gave to his theory of personality?
Personological System
in the circumplex model , the major dimensions are
occupational tasks and societal tasks.
John recently brought his TA a box of cookies. To determine the traits relevant to this act and the meaning of this act, Funder would suggest that you would want to know
the immediate situation and John's past behavior with TA's.
Murray's measurement tool, designed to assess "thema" is called the
Thematic Apperception Test.
Lorenz found that during a critical period, ducklings will __________ on their mother (or whoever is available).
imprint
Walter Mischel combined which two ideas in his theory of personality to explain where behavior comes from?
Cognitive ability and societal influences
Which of the following statements best describes the main idea behind Harry Stack Sullivan's approach to personality?
A person's behavior varies with situational expectations, A person's personality develops over an entire lifespan, Personality is inextricably tied to social situations, and People need interaction with other people to develop fully
The equation B = f(P,E) means
the person and the environment both contribute to behavior.
Which two things are combined to make up Murray's theory of personality?
Internal motivations and external demands
According to Mischel, encoding strategies are
the mechanisms we use to process information.
The primary idea behind an interactionist perspective is that
observed behavior results from a mix of situational and dispositional causes.
Sullivan integrated many ideas from which two individuals?
Mead and Sapir
People are better at judging the personalities of others when they
know them well.
It is often easy to believe stereotypes because
we don't see people in a wide variety of situations, so we assume they ARE the way we usually see them.
Mischel based his argument that personality is not a useful construct on the fact that
people's behaviors vary across situations
What is a longitudinal study?
a study in which people are observed and studied over significant portions of their life spans
The study of personality across the "life course" or "life path" takes into account which of the following influences on behavior?
culture and social groups, traits and motives, age and life events, and abilities and drives
It seems that small-group interactions can be categorized into which two broad dimensions?
affiliation and assertiveness
For Sullivan, it is most important to examine
how people feel when they have been rejected by others.
Mead's idea of the "social self" describes the idea that
the way we see ourselves is determined from our interactions with others.
When comparing the correlation between personality and behavior with the correlation between situation and behavior, we find that
both the situation and the personality contribute about equally to the prediction of behavior.
Which of the following does NOT influence an individual's ability to delay gratification?
generation
A "cheating personality" cannot generally be found. This is because
honesty depends so much on the situation.
The primary idea behind an interactionist perspective is that
observed behavior results from a mix of situational and dispositional causes.
An important facet of Sullivan's personality theory is which of the following concepts?
Chumship
A behaviorist view claims that gender differences in personality arise
from society.
Research by Whiting and Edwards suggest that across many different cultures
females are consistently more nurturant.
A study of courtship among Boston college students found
that men were more devastated when relationships ended.
Studies have shown that women seem to cry more than men. Which of the following is NOT a likely explanation for this difference:
Different functioning of the tear ducts in males versus females
Why did Freud assert that "anatomy is destiny"?
because he believed that ultimately identity is determined by our sex
In ancient petroglyphs and hieroglyphs, men were usually portrayed as
warriors or hunters.
Which theorist placed an emphasis on recognizing and incorporating both "maleness" and "femaleness" into healthy human development (that is, the concept of androgyny)?
Jung
Women's hormonal cycles have been said to be associated with
emotional instability.
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
Males and females both find masculine qualities more desirable than feminine qualities, Baby boys tend to cry more than baby girls, In the age range of 15–24, males and females have very different death rates, and Females tend to live longer than males.
Which of the following approaches would be most likely to predict that as societies give more equal rights and opportunities to women, personality differences between men and women would become smaller?
Humanistic perspective
How is prenatal androgen exposure related to differences in later behavior?
Higher levels of prenatal androgens can lead to more aggressive behavior in both males and females
Men generally are found to have more "dominant" personalities when dominance is defined as
aggression.
Which of the following is true of the interactionist approach to behavior differences in males and females?
Males exhibit more instrumental behavior, females exhibit more expressive behavior.
in Broverman's 1972 study of perceptions of men and women, it was found that
both men and women perceived masculine characteristics to be more desirable than feminine characteristics
Which of the following is NOT a traditionally masculine characteristic?
nurturance
Which of the following is an example of the social learning of gender-related norms?
Grandma calls all the girls to the kitchen after Thanksgiving dinner, to wash the dishes
According to the humanistic perspective, gender differences in personality will __________ as societies equalize opportunities for men and women.
become smaller
The earliest evidence that suggests that males and females are viewed differently came from where?
Ancient civilizations
Which of the following individuals believed women to be inferior to men?
Aristotle, Plato, and Thomas Aquinas
Which of the following is true of bilingualism (speaking two languages)?
People who speak two languages usually relate certain things to each language and act accordingly depending on the language they are speaking or the situation they are in.
Cross-cultural researchers have found that Western cultures tend to be more __________ whereas Eastern cultures emphasize a(n) __________ viewpoint.
individualistic; collectivist
The fact that Americans believe that "all men are created equal" and yet, everyone is not treated equally is a phenomena called
the American Dilemma.
What is the difference between an emic approach and an etic approach to studying cultures?
An emic approach is culture specific; an etic approach is cross cultural
Although cultural and ethnic aspects of personality have often been ignored, __________ was studying the impact of the experiences of Blacks and Jews in the 1950s.
Allport
Brenda took a trip abroad recently and found herself comparing the Europeans' traditions to her own. She found it very strange that there was so much napping going on in the afternoon and that people seemed to get things done so slowly. Although she knew she would enjoy herself more if she appreciated the culture she found herself immersed in, she really didn't like the different traditions she observed. Brenda is being __________ in her view of European culture.
ethnocentric
Suppose that you have given a personality test to samples of individuals from two different cultural groups. You find that one group scores significantly higher on neuroticism. How can you determine whether this is a true finding, or whether it reflects a cultural bias in your measurement?
Look at other sources of information about the groups for confirming or disconfirming evidence.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a term that describes a person's relative standing in
education and income.
The fact that someone with higher SES is at a lower risk of becoming ill and dying prematurely than someone of lower SES is called
the SES gradient.
stereotype threat may lead to
anxiety, an increase in blood pressure, physiological responses from threatened individuals, and poorer test performance
Groups are often formed based on which of the following?
religious practices, cultural habits and customs, physical characteristics, and political beliefs
Which of the following illustrates the concept of "linguistic relativity"?
Suzy doesn't understand the complexities of weather because, in her culture, words for describing weather are broad and general, rather than specific.
How has the scientific study of culture been used in a negative way?
It has been used to reinforce stereotypes.
The concept of __________ suggests that our interpretation of the world is, to a large extent, dependent on the linguistic system by which we classify it.
linguistic relativity
Jen lives in a society where individuals see themselves as all working on a common "team." The success of the group is valued above her individual success. She is most likely living in a(n) __________ society.
collectivist
According to research by Whiting & Whiting, children who grow up in a cooperative home environment tend to be more __________ as adults than those raised in a competitive, "me first" atmosphere.
prosocial
Which term describes "evaluating others from one's own cultural point of view"?
Ethnocentrism
Linton, in his book, The Cultural Background of Personality, argues that
people in the same culture share things like behavior and knowledge, which may shape apparent "personality."
Language influences all but which of the following?
the physical characteristics we possess
social status may be inferred from which of the following?
wealth, occupation, age, and sex
Scores on psychological tests are known to be affected by
cultural experiences, motivation, qualities of the test administrator, and previous test-taking experiences.