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105 Cards in this Set

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MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
the number of repeated contractions a muscle or muscle group can perform against a resistance witout fatiguing.
CHAPTER 1
MUSCULAR STRENGTH
them maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can develop during a single contraction
CHAPTER 1
CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE
the ability of the heart, blood and lungs to deliver an adequate supply of oxygen to exercising muscles
CHAPTER 1
BODY COMPOSITION
the sum of fat weight and fat free weight
CHAPTER 1
FLEXIBILITY
the amount of movement that can be accomplished at a joint
CHAPTER 1
PULMUNARY VEINS
blood enters the Pulmonary veins
CHAPTER 1
LT SIDE OF HEART
blood enters the left side of the heart
CHAPTER 1
SYSTEMIC ARTERIES
blood enters the systemic arteries
CHAPTER 1
DSCH O2/BINDS CO2
blood discharges oxygen and binds to carbon dioxide in the body
CHAPTER 1
SYSTEMIC VEINS
blood enters the systemic veins
CHAPTER 1
RT SIDE OF HEART
blood enters the right side of the heart
CHAPTER 1
PULMUNARY ARTERIES
blood enters the pulmonary arteries
CHAPTER 1
ABSOLUTE STRENGTH
The difference between absolute strength gains in men and absolute strength gains in women is that men will generally hypertrophy (increased muscle size) to a greater extent than women principally due to the higher levels of testerone in men.
CHAPTER 1
CIRCULATION
The difference between pulmonary circulation and and systemic circulation is that the former is limited to the lungs and the latter delivers blood to the rest of the body.
CHAPTER 1
ENERGY MOLECULES
The difference between aerobic energy systems and anaerobic energy systems is that the former derives energy from ATP produced with oxygen and the latter uses glucose or creatinine phosphate. The latter is also the secondary means of ATP production i.e. when there is insufficient oxygen supply. The latter produces ATP outside the mitochondria.
CHAPTER 1
INTERVAL TRAINING
The difference between performance interval training and fitness interval training is that the former is a very high intensity effort designed to enhance competitive performance in a specific sport. The latter is a modest to vigorous intensity effort designed to improve general fitness.
CHAPTER 1
SLOW/FAST TWITCH
The difference between slow-twitch (dark/red) muscle fibers and fast-twitch (white) muscle fibers is that the former contract more slowly. Slow-twitch muscle fibers are also called slow-oxidate have a smaller cross-section, more mitochondria and a high resistance to fatigue. Fast-twitch muscle fibers, types IIa and IIb do not have the endurance or aerobice capability of slow-twitch muscle fibers.
CHAPTER 1
CARDIAC/SKELETAL MUSCLES
The difference between cardiac muscles and skeletal muscles is the the former are only found in the heart and can grade the force of the contraction. Skeletal muscles attach to bones across one or more joints and are the only type of muscle under voluntary control which causes movement. Skeletal muscles only contract maximally.
CHAPTER 1
SORENESS
The difference between immediate and delayed onset muscle soreness is that the former is related to the build up of Lactic Acid that leaks out of the muscles and stimulates nerves. Delayed soreness may be due to small tears in the connective tissue.
CHAPTER 1
EXERCISE/SYSTOLIC
Exercise INCREASES systolic BP
CHAPTER 1
EXERCISE/DIASTOLIE
Exercise cause NO CHANGE in diastolic BP
CHAPTER 1
EXERCISE/ABDOMEN
Exercise DECREASES blood flow to the abdomen
CHAPTER 1
EXERCISE/VASCULAR
Exercise DECREASES the amount of peripheral resistance in the vascular system
CHAPTER 1
EXERCISE/ATP
Exercise INCREASES ATP production
CHAPTER 1
MUSCLE FATIGUE
Muscle fatigue is related to the intensity and duration of the exercise.
CHAPTER 1
MUSCLE FATIGUE
A power event/maximum effort lasting 0-30 seconds results in muscle fatigue because the muscle cells run out of ATP at the site of the actin-myosin crossbridge. Without ATP the fibers can no longer contract
CHAPTER 1
MUSCLE FATIGUE
30 minutes of heavy exercise results in muscle fatigue because of the build up of lactic acid which inhibits the ability of the muscle cell to contract.
CHAPTER 1
MUSCLE FATIGUE
A 3 hour running marathon results in muscle fatigue because glucogen becomes depleted in the exercising muscle. Without glucogen muscle cells cannot contract even with an adequate source of oxygen.
CHAPTER 1
BODY FAT PERCENTAGE
The body fat percentage for women is between 21-24 and for men it is 14-17.
CHAPTER 1
MUSCLE PUMP
The rhythmic squeezing action of large muscles against the veins within these muscles is called the MUSCLE PUMP
CHAPTER 1
EJECTION FRACTION
The ejection fraction is 50 percent at rest and can increase to 100 percent during exercise.
CHAPTER 1
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD
Anaerobic threshold is reached somewhere between 50-85 percent of maximal effort.
CHAPTER 1
OPTIMUM EXERCISE INTENSITY
Optimum exercise intensity for fitness improvements is in the range of approximately 60-90 percent maximum heart rate.
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 Reasons that FLEXIBILITY is LIMITED
by elastic limits of the ligaments and tendons crossing the joint.
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 Reasons that FLEXIBILITY is LIMITED
by the elasticity of the muscle tissue.
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 Reasons that FLEXIBILITY is LIMITED
by the bone and joint structure.
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 Reasons that FLEXIBILITY is LIMITED
by the skin.
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
resting heart rate increases
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
stroke volume at rest
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
VO2 max
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
maximum heart rate increases
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
mitochondrial density increases
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
anaerobic threshold decreases
CHAPTER 1
1 of 7 things that are a result of AEROBIC TRAINING
heart rate at submaximum intensity decreases
CHAPTER 1
CARDIAC OUTPUT MAX
CHAPTER 1
OXYGEN EXTRACTION MAX
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 TRAINING RULES
Frequency = 3 times per week
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 TRAINING RULES
Intensity = 50-85% of maximum VO2
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 TRAINING RULES
Type = rhythmic, large muscle movement
CHAPTER 1
1 of 4 TRAINING RULES
Duration = 10-20 minutes per session
CHAPTER 1
SLIDING FILAMENT
1. Nervous impulse from brain causes motor neurons to release acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction.
2. Acetylcholine detected and nerve impulse spread across sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum releaes calcium into muscle fiber sarcoplasm.
4. Calcium binds with proteins (troponin and tropomyosin) along actin filament and exposes binding sites for myosin filament.
5. With ATP myosin binds with actin filaments to form crossbridges.
6. The myosin pulls the actin toward the center and the sarcomere shortens.
7. Nerve impulse ceases, calcium returns to sarcoplasmic reticulum, link breaks between actin and myosin.
CHAPTER 1
CARDIAC OUTPUT
AMOUNT OF BLOOD THAT FLOWS FROM EACH VENTRICLE IN ONE MINUTE. Q=HR*SV
CHAPTER 1
HEART RATE
THE NUMBER OF TIMES A HEART BEATS IN ONE MINUTE
CHAPTER 1
STROKE VOLUME
THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD THAT PUMPS FROM EACH VENTRICLE EACH TIME THE HEART BEATS
CHAPTER 1
EJECTION FRACTION
THE PERCENT OF TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME IN THE VENTRICLE AT THE END OF DASTOLE THAT IS SUBSEQUENTLY EJECTED DURING CONTRACTION
CHAPTER 1
OXYGEN EXTRACTION
AMOUNT OF OXYGEN TAKEN FROM HEMOGLOBIN IN THE CAPILLARIES OF THE MUSCLES AND DELIVERED TO THE MUSCLES
CHAPTER 1
ATP
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE - THE ENERGY MOLECULE. A SUBSTANCE IN A CELL THAT DRIVES THE MUSCLE TO CONRACT.
CHAPTER 1
AEROBIC SYSTEM
THE FIRST SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING ATP
CHAPTER 1
ANAEROBIC SYSTEM
GLYCOLYSIS AND CREATINE PHOSPAHTE SYSTEM ARE THE PRIMARY SOURCES OF ATP WHEN AN INADEQUATE SUPPLY OF OXYGEN IS AVAILABLE.
CHAPTER 1
BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS FOR ATP
1. ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
2. CHREATINE PHOSPATE SYSTEM
3. MITOCHONDRIA
CHAPTER 1
ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
AN ANAEROBIC ATP PRODUCTION SYSTEM THAT USES GLUCOSE.
CHAPTER 1
CREATINE PHOSPHATE SYSTEM
ANAEROBIC ATP PRODUCTION THAT USES THE CREATININE PHOSPHATE MOLECULE TO HELP PRODUCE ATP
CHAPTER 1
MITOCHONDRIA
A STRUCTURE IN A CELL WHICH IS THE SITE OF ATP (ENERGY) PRODUCTION.
CHAPTER 1
ISCHEMIA
AN INSUFFICIENT OXYGEN SUPPLY TO THE HEART MUSCLE THAT CAN LEAD TO ANGINA PECTORIS. NOTE: ISCHEMIA IN THE BRAIN CAN LEAD TO A STROKE.
CHAPTER 1
ANGINA PECTORIS
CHEST PAIN OR PRESSURE DUE TO ISCHEMIA (DECREASED OXYGEN SUPPLY).
CHAPTER 1
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD
THE EXERCISE INTENSITY AT WHICH ADEQUATE OXYGEN IS UNAVAILABLE. OCCURS AT 50-85% OF MAXIMUM EFFORT.
CHAPTER 1
GLYCOGEN
A LARGE MOLECULE MADE UP OF GLUCOSE CHAINS STORED IN MUSCLES AND THE LIVER.
CHAPTER 1
PHOSPHAGENS
ATP + CREATINE PHOSPHATE; ANAEROBIC ATP PRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1
KILOCALORIE
KCAL - UNIT OF ENERGY IN EXERCISE SCIENCE. 1 KCAL = AMOUNT OF HEAT THAT WILL RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 KILOGRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE.
CHAPTER 1
HYPERVENTILATION
BREATHING FASTER THAN IS NECESSARY AT A FIVEN PACE, INDICATES ANAEROBIC ATP PRODUCTION IS PREDOMINANT.
CHAPTER 1
ENZYMES
PROTIENS NEEDED TO START CHMICAL REACTIONS THAT PRODUCE ATP, AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC.
CHAPTER 1
MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION
VO2 - AKA MAXIMUM AEROBIC CAPACITY. THE TOTAL CAPACITYTO CONSUME OXYGEN AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL. DEPENDS ON 2 THINGS: CARDIAC OUTPUT (HR*SV) THAT DELIVERS OXYGEN TO THE WORKING MUSCLE VIA BLOOD AND OXYGEN EXTRACTION, THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTING OXYGEN FROM BLOOD IN THE CAPILLARIES AND USE IT IN THE MITOCHONDRIA.
CHAPTER 1
VO2 Formula
VO2 = ((HR * SV) * O2 EXTRACTION))
CHAPTER 1
What is VO2?
VOLUME OF OXYGEN CONSUMED.
CHAPTER 1
MET
METOBOLLIC EQUIVALENT - RESTING VO2 UNIT
CHAPTER 1
VASODILATION
INCREASE IN DIAMETER IN ARTERIAL VESSELS THAT SUPPLY BOLLD TO EXERCISING MUSCLES. OCCURS WHEN EXCERS=CISE AND BLOOD IS SHUNTED FROM THE ABDOMEN TO THE EXERCISING MUSCLES.
CHAPTER 1
VASO CONSTRICTION
DECREASE IN DIAMETER OF BLOO VESSELS. BLOOD VESSELS TO THE ABDOMENT VASOCONSTRICT WHEN EXERCISE BEGINS.
CHAPTER 1
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
SYSTOLE - AMOUNT OF PRESSURE FROM CONTRACTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE. PROPELS BLOOD THROUGH THE SYSTEM!
CHAPTER 1
DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
DIASTOLE - AMOUNT OF PRESSURE LEFT IN THE VASCULAR SYSTEM WHE THE HEART MUSCLE RELAXES BETWEEN BEATS.
CHAPTER 1
BP UPPER NUMBER
SYSTOLE
CHAPTER 1
BP LOWER NUMBER
DIASTOLE
CHAPTER 1
OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE
TO TRAIN ONE OF THE BODY'S SYSTEMS SO THAT SYSTEM MUST BE MADE TO WORK HARDER THAN IT'S ACCUSTOMED TO WORKING: TYPE, INTENSITY, DURATION AND FREQUENCY.
CHAPTER 1
VENOUS RETURN
THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD RETURNING TO THE HEART.
CHAPTER 1
SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING
THE PRINCIPLES OF SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING IS THE CONCEPT OF PERIODIZATION THAT STATES THAT FOR AN INDIVIDUAL TO BECOME PROFICIENT AT ANY GIVEN MOVEMENT THAT MOVEMENT MUST BE TRAINED AND PRACTICED. A SPECIFIC DEMAND RESULTS IN A SPECIFIC RESPONSE.
CHAPTER 1
MOTOR NEURONS
CONDUCT NERVE IMPULSES FROM THE BRAIN TO THE MUSCLE FIBERS.
CHAPTER 1
NEURONS
THE MAIN TYPE OF NEVER TISSUE CELLS THAT MAKE UP THE BRAIN AND SPINE.
CHAPTER 1
NEUROTRANSMITTER
A CHEMICAL (ACETYLCHOLINE) THAT TRANSMITS NERVE IMPULSES TO MUSCLE FIBERS. NEUROTRANSMITTERS ARE INSIDE EACH MOTOR NEURON.
CHAPTER 1
ACETYLCHOLINE
A NEUROTRANSMITTER.
CHAPTER 1
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
THE JUNCTION AT WHICH A MOTOR NEURON AND MYOFIBRIL MEET.
CHAPTER 1
MYOFIBRIL
CONTRACTILE PROTEIN IN A MUSCLE FIBER. E.G. ACTIN AND MYOSIN. LIKE STRANDS OF PROTIEN.
CHAPTER 1
ACTIN
PROTEIN IN THE MYOFIBRIL THAT RESULTS IN CONTRACTION. LOCATED ON THE EDGE OF SARCOMERE.
CHAPTER 1
MYOSIN
PROTEIN IN THE MYOFIBRIL THAT RESULTS IN CONTRACTION. LOCATED IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SARCOMERE.
CHAPTER 1
CONTRACTABLE PROTEINS
PROTEINS RELATED TO THE PROCESS OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION.
CHAPTER 1
SARCOMERES
REPEATING UNIT ALONG THE LENGTH OF A MUSCLE CELL WHICH HOLD THE MYOFIBRILS THAT HOLD THE NEUROTRANSMITTERS CALLED ACTIN & MY0SIN.
CHAPTER 1
SARCOLEMMA
THE MEMBRANE SURRONDING THE SARCOMERE.
CHAPTER 1
SARCOPLASM
GELATIN LIKE TISSUE SURROUNDING THE SARCOMERE. IT HOLDS MITOCHONDRIA ANDSARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
CHAPTER 1
SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM
STORES AND RELEASES CALCIUM.
CHAPTER 1
CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION
(POSITIVE) SHORTENS MUSCLE
CHAPTER 1
ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION
(NEGATIVE) LENGTHENS THE MUSCLE. IT OCCURS WHEN INDIVIDUAL FIBERS CONTRACT
CHAPTER 1
ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION
CONTRACTION OF INDIVIDUAL FIBERS BUT NO CHANGE TO THE LENGTH OF THE WHOLE MUSCLE.
CHAPTER 1
MOTOR UNIT
A MOTOR NERVE AND ALL THE MUSCLE FIBERS THAT STIMULATE IT.
CHAPTER 1
HYPERTROPHY
INCREASE IN SIZE OF MUSCLES, INCREASE IN SIZE AND NUMBER OF MYOFIBRILS INSIDE MUSCLE FIBER, I.E. INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF ACTIN, MYOSIN AND OTHER RELATED PROTEINS RESPONSIBLE FOR FORCE GENERATION.
CHAPTER 1
NERVOUS INHIBITION
PHSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL. LACK OF CONFIDENCE. ADAPTION THAT INCREASES ABILITY/STRENGTH, E.G. GOLGI TENDON ORGAN.
CHAPTER 1
GOLGI TENDON ORGAN
PART OF NERVOUS SYSTEM; PROTECTIVE INHIBITION THAT PREVENTS TOO MUCH CONTRACTILE FORCE BY RELAXING THE MUSCLE AND PREVENTING INJURY. CERTAIN SITUATIONS CAN OVERRIDE THE GOLGI TENDON INIHIBITION.
CHAPTER 1
MUSCLE SPINDLES
FIBERS IN THE MUSCLE TISSUE THAT PREVENT TOO MUCH STRETCH.
CHAPTER 1