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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Brain metastasis
Lotsa Bad Stuff Kills Glia

Lung, Breast, Skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI tract tumors
Liver metastasis
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver

Colon, Stomach, Pancreas, Breast, Lung
Bone metastasis
P.T. Barnum Loves Kids

Prostate, testes/thyroid, breast, lung, kidneys (renal cell carcinoma)
Lung, prostate, and breast cancer bone affects
Lung = lytic
prostate = blastic
breast = blastic and lytic
Aflatoxins cause
hepatocellular carcinoma
vinyl chloride causes
(refrigeration and adhesives)
angiosarcoma in the liver
CCl4 causes
Centrilobular necrosis, fatty change
Nitrosamines (smoked foods) causes

Asians b/c of smoked foods/fish
bolongna, hot dogs
Gastric Cancer
Cigarettes cause
squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, squamous an small cell carcinoma of the lung, renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
asbestos causes
(fire proofing, insulation, brake pads
mesothelioma (plura) and bronchogenic carcinoma
Arsenic causes
(alloys and pesticides)
squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

angiosarcoma of the liver
naphthalene aniline dyes causes
(moth balls)
transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
Alkylating agents cause
leukemia
alcohol causes cancer.....
squamous cell of the esophagus, mouth, larygx

hepatocellular carcinoma
which cancers display psammoma bodies
PSaMMoma

papillary thyroid
serous (ovary)
Meningioma
Mesothelioma
Small Cell lung cancer can express
ACTH or ACTH-like peptide causing cushing's syndrome

ADH causeing SIADH
Calcitonin tumor marker
medullary thyroid cancer

neoplasm of the C cells
CA-19-9 and CEA tumor markers
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
TRAP tumor marker
Titrate-resistant acid phosphatase

hairy cell leukemia - a B cell neoplasm
Bombesin tumor marker
Adrenal neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer
Alkaline phosphatase tumor marker
Metastases to bone, obstructive biliary disease, Paget's disease of bone
S-100 tumor marker
Melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytomas
CA-125 tumor marker
Ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors, also expressed by just about anything that irritates the peritoneum
beta-hCG tumor marker
hydatiform moles, choriocarcinoma (also in testes), gestational trophoblastic tumors
alpha-fetoprotein tumor marker
hepatocellular carcinoma, nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (yolk sac tumor)
CEA tumor marker
carcino-embryonic antigen

very nonspecific
produced by 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers. also produced by gastric, breast, and thyroid medullary carcinoma
Prostatic Acid phosphatase and PSA tumor marker
prostate carcinoma
HTLV-1 cancer association
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
EBV cancer association
Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma
HIV cancer association
Primary CNS lymphoma
Rb associated tumor and gene product
Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma

RB gene product blocks G1->S phase
p53 associated tumor and gene product
most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome

product blocks G1-> S phase of cell cycle
BRCA1 associated tumor and gene product
Breast and ovarian cancer

DNA repair protein
BRCA2 associated tumor and gene product
breast cancer

DNA repair
p16 associated tumor
melanoma
APC associated tumor
Colorectal cancer (associated with FAP)
WT1 associated tumor
Wilm's tumor
NF1 associated disorder/cancer and chromosome
Neurofibromatosis type 1, cutaneous neurofibromas

chromosome 17
NF2 associated disorder and chromosome
neurofibromatosis type 2, bilateral acoustic schwannoma

chromosome 22
DPC associated cancer
pancreated cancer

Deleted in Pancreatic Cancer
DCC associated cancer
colon cancer

Deleted in Colon Cancer
abl associated tumor and gene product
CML
bcr-abl translocation Philadelphia chromosome t(9,22)
tyrosine kinase
c-myc associated cancer and gene product
Burkitt's lymphoma, EBV

transcription factor
bcl-2 associated tumor and gene product
follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas (inhibits apoptosis)

anti-apoptotic molecule
erb-B2 associated tumor and gene product
breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinoma

tyrosine kinase
ras assocaiated tumor and gene product
colon carcinoma

GTPase -> MAP kinase (mitogen activating protein)
L-myc associated tumor and gene product
Lung tumor (small cell)

transcription factor
N-myc associated tumor and gene product
Neuroblastoma (adrenal neuroblastoma and also small cell lung carcinoma)

transcription factor
ret associated tumor and gene product
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types IIA and IIB (pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, also papillary carcinoma of thyroid)

tyrosine kinase
c-kit associated tumor and gene product
gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

cytokine receptor
Down Syndrome associated neoplasms
(we ALL fall DOWN) ALL, also AML

also increased Alzheimer disease
Xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism associated neoplasm
melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and especially squamous cell carcinomas of the skin
chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgical gastric remnants neoplasm association
gastric adenocarcinoma
tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation) neoplasm assocation
10% astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma, and 66% cardiac rhabdomyoma
Actinic keratosis (solar keratosis) associated neoplasm
squamous cel carcinoma (precursor)

tx: 5-FU topical
Plummer-Vinson syndrome (atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, anemia; all due to iron deficiency) associated neoplasm
squamous cell carcinoma of the upper esophagus
ulcerative colitis associated neoplasm
colonic adenocarcinoma
paget's disease of bone associated neoplasm
2` osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma
AIDS associated neoplasms
Agressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkins), Kaposi's sarcoma, and primary CNS lymphoma
Autoimmune diseases (Hashimotos, myasthenia gravis) associated neoplasm
lymphoma
Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening)
Visceral malignancy (somach, lung, breast, uterus)

also DM II
Achalasia associated neoplasm
squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
Sjogren syndrome associated neoplasm
B cell lymphoma
intrinsic apoptosis pathway mechanism
increased Bax (pro-apoptotic), decreased Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotitic)-> increased mitochondrial permeability and Cytochrome C release which activates cytosolic caspases

due to hormone induction, embryogenesis, atrophy, and injurous stimuli
2 extrinsic apoptosis pathway mechanisms
1. ligand receptor interactions Fas ligand binding to Fas [CD95]
2.immune cell release of perforin and granzyme B

cytosolic caspases activated
antinuclear antibodies (ANA) used
SLE, non specific so a screen
Anti-dsDNA, anti-Smith used
SLE

anti-dsDNA is more specific for SLE renal disease
antihistone
drug induced lupus 90%
still seen in SLE 50%

SHIPP
sulfonamides, hydralyzine, isoniazid, procainamide, phenytoin
Anti-IgG
rheumatoid factor
anticentromere
Scleroderma (CREST)
anti-Scl-70 (anti-DNA topoisomeraseI)
scleroderma (diffuse)
antimitochondrial
1`billiary cirrhosis
antiendomysial
celiac disease
anti-basement membrane
goodpasture's syndrome
anti-desmoglein
pemphigus vulgaris (desmosomes)
antimicrosomal, antithyroglobulin
hoshimotos thyroiditis
anti-Jo-1
polymyositis, dermatomyositis
Anti-SS-A (anti-Ro)
sjogren's syndrome
anti-SS-B (anti-La)
sjogrens syndrome
anti-U1 RNP (ribonucleoprotein)
mixed connective tissue disease
anti-smooth muscle
autoimmune hepatitis
anti-glutamate dearboxylase
type 1 diabetes mellitus
c-ANCA
Wegner's granulomatosis
p-ANCA
microscopic polyangitis, Churgh-Strauss syndrome
MPO-ANCA
pose immune crescentic glomerulonephritis
anti-Ach receptor
myasthenia gravis
Type 1 Hypersensitivity mechanism
free antigen cross links IgE on presensitized mast cells and basophils triggering release of vasoactive amines. after antigen exposure rapid response due to preformed antibodies
type 2 hypersensitivity mechanism
IgM, IgG bind to free antigen on "enemy" cell, leading to lysis by complement or phyagocytosis
1. opsonize cells or activate complement
2.antibodies recruit neutrophils and macrophages that incite tissue damage
3. bind normal cellular receptors and interfere with functioning

disease tends to be specific to tissue or site where antigen is found
type 3 hypersensitivity mechanism
antigen-antibody (IgG) complexes activate complement which attracts neutrophils; neutrophils release lysosomal enzymes also complement acts. immune complexes can deposit and cause damage in kidneys, joints, etc

can be associated with vasculitis and systemic manifestations
type 4 hypersensitivity mechanism
sensitized t lymphocytes encounter antigen and then release lymphokines (leads to macrophage activation)

only type to not involve antibodies. cell mediated therefore, not transferable by serum.

4T's t lymphocytes, transplant rejections, TB skin test, touching (contact dermatitis)
neutrophil chemotactic factors
IL-8, C5a, LB4
endogenous pyrogens
IL-1, IL-6, PGE2
Anaphylatoxins
C3a, C5a
Opsonins
C3b, IgG

C3b binds bacteria