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49 Cards in this Set

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Illusory Correlation is. . .

an apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated or weakly related events. (People see what they expect to see)



Ex: Sugar makes kids hyper


Observation after kid eats sugar expecting them to behave hyper actively.

What is an Experiment?

a study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable.

What is an Independent Variable?

An item (or factor) that an experiment changes or controls.

What is a Dependent Variable?

An item that an experiment measures to determine how it was affected.

An Experiment Group is. . .

A group that receives the treatment that an experiment is designed to test.

A Control Group is. . .

A set of individuals treated in the same way as the experimental group except for the procedure that the experiment is designed to test.

What is a Random Assignment?

The experimenter uses a chance procedure to make sure that every participant has the same probability as any other participant of being assigned to a given group.

Why Random Assignment?

Creates equivalent groups while allowing no other factors affect the experiment.

1900s Definition of Psychology

"Study of behavior"

Psychology's definition changed overtime to. . .

"Scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of individuals."

Psychology's Goals are. . .

Description


Explanation


Prediction


Control

Goal of Description.

What is happening?

Goal of Explanation.

Why is it happening?

Goal of Prediction.

When will it happen again?

Goal of Control.

How can it be changed?

Describe "Folk Psychology"

Trying to explain people's feelings and actions.

Hindsight Bias is. . .

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome (that one would have seen it coming all along) "I knew-it-all-along theory"

How does psychology differ from common sense? (common sense side)

For most common sense notions, there is an "equally-sounding" notion that says just the opposite.

How does psychology differ from common sense? (psychological side)

Psychological researchers collect systematic data to try to improve upon common sense.

3 Philosophical questions that motivate psychologists?

-Free Will vs. Determinism


-The Mind-Brain Problem


-The Nature - Nurture Issue.

What is Determinism?

The assumption that everything that happens, has a cause or determinant in the observable world. "Everything we do has a cause/motive/reason"

What is Free Will?

The belief that behavior is caused by a person's independent decisions.

"When you have the conscious experience of "deciding" to move a finger, the behavior is already starting to happen." -

Daniel Wegner

The Mind-Brain Problem is. . .

The philosophical question of how experience is related to the brain.

Dualism is. . .

The mind is separate from the brain, but somehow it controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body.

Monism is. . .

The view that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain.

Wilhem Wundt

Known as the "Father of psychology"


-He set up first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany


-Interested in the components of experience.


-Asked subjects to "Introspect" aka (look within themselves)

Structuralism is. . .

The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.

Introspection is. . .

Subjective observation of one's own experience.

William James

Founder of American Psychology


Focused on the actions of the mind

Functionalism is. . .

The study of the purpose that mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment

What is a Theory?

Statement about the casual relation between two or more variables.

What is the difference between science and other human endeavors?

Scientists agree on how to evaluate theories.

What is a Hypothesis?

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (Scientific hypotheses must be falsifiable)

Psychologists use different ways to test their. . .

Hypotheses

Operation Definition is. . .

a definition that specifies the procedures used to produce or measure something.

Three Descriptive Methods are. . .

Surveys, Case Studies and Naturalistic Observations.

Naturalistic Observation is. . .

A method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.

Case Study (Method)


Pros:


Cons:

A descriptive research method that involves intensive observation AND analysis of one individual.


Pros: rich data source


Cons: vulnerable to biases

What is a Survey?

A study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors based on people's response to specific questions.

What is a Population?

Entire group in which the researcher desires to learn about.

What is a Sample?

This is a smaller group of people who actually participate in the research experiment.

Representative Sample is. . .

A sample that is approximately the same as the population.

Random Sample is. . .

Where everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected.

Sampling Error occurs when. . .

Those selected may be different than those not selected.

Non-Response Error occurs when. . .

Not everyone who is randomly selected will participate.

Correlation is. . .

A measure of the relationship between two variables.

Correlational Studies are. . .

Procedures in which investigators measure the correlation (relationship) between two variables without controlling either of them.

Correlation Coefficient is. . .

A mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables.