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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Etiological categories of fractures (4)
Local trauma
Transmitted force (ex-fall)
Penetrating trauma (ex-gun shot)
Pathological fracture (ex-osteoporosis related)
Fractures: pathological processes (4)
Hemorrhage
Necrosis
Edema
Soft tissue injury
Injuries associated with fracture (5)
Nerve
Vessel
Viscera
Tendon
Muscle
Factors that determine fracture type (3)
Energy absorbed
Direction of force
Age
Fracture Patterns (2)
Spiral fracture (from twisting force, less force needed)
Transverse fracture (from transverse force, more force needed)
Fracture Symptoms
Pain
Loss of Function
Swelling
Discolouration
Neural deficit (ex-radial nerve palsy after distal humaral fracture)
Fracture Signs
Crepitis
Tenderness
Deformation
Reduced ROM
Fracture Classification (5)
open vs closed
intra vs extra-articular
type (transverse, oblique, spiral)
epiphyseal vs metaphyseal vs diaphyseal
Comminuted vs non-comminuted
Phases of fracture healing
Inflammation/Hemorrhage (10%)
Reparative/proliferative (40%)
Remodellng (70%)
Fracture healing: modifying factors (5)
Age
Initial trauma
Associated injuries
Treatment
Complications
Fracture Healing: Hematoma Phase
Hematoma around bone
Intramedullary hemorrhage
Necrosis at bone ends
Days to weeks
Fracture Healing: Proliferative phase
New bone from periosteum (most), endosteum, cortex
Callus formation
Weeks to months
Fracture healing: remodelling
Trabecular formation and realignment
Wolff's Law
Months to Years
Fracture Treatment: Objectives (4)
Union
Avoidance of complications
Minimization of deformity
Restoration of function
Fracture Treatment: Principles
Reduction (traction and manipulation)
Immobilization
Rehabilitation