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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Myasthenia gravis
a disease in which the immune system attacks the acetylocholine receptors at the nerve-muscle joints
Myelinated axon
an axon covered with a myelin sheath.
chemical that has properties intermediate between those of a neurotransmitter and those of a hormone.
cells that receive information and transmit it to other cells by donducting electrochemical impulses.
(See: Synapses)
chemicals released by neurons that affect other neurons.
Nitric oxide
gas released by many small neurons and used as a neuromodulator.
a neurotransmitter.
a chain of amino acids
Postsynaptic neuron
a neuron on the receiving end of a synapse.
Presynaptic neuron
a neuron on the releasing end of a synapse
the category of chemicals that includes adenosine.
a consistent, automatic response to a stimulus.
Reflex arc
circuit of neurons from the sensory neurons to muscle responses that produces a reflex.
the reabsorption of most of a neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal.
Second messenger
the chemical within a neuron that, when activated by a neurotransmitter, initiates processes that carry messages to several areas within the neuron.
a neurotransmitter.
Spatial summation
combination of effects of activity from two or more synapses onto a single neuron.
Spontaneous firing rate
a periodic production of action potentials by a neuron in the absence of synaptic input.
Substance abuse
a maladaptive pattern of sunstance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.
Sympathetic nervous system
the network of nerves that prepare the body's organs for vigorous activity.
points of communication at the gap between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle.
Temporal summation
cumulative effect as a result of repeated synaptic stimulation within a brief time.
amembrane protein responsible for the reuptake of a neurotransmitter after its release.
the tiny, nearly spherical packets near the axon terminals filled with a neurotransmitter.
a chemical similar to an amino acid, except that the NH2 group has been replaced by an N(CH3)3 group; a neurotransmitter.
an enzyme that breaks acetylcholine into acetate and choline.
breakdown product of AMP that forms during metabolic activity; a neuromodulator that inhibits the basal forebreain cells that promote arousal and wakefulness.
tendency of a drug to bind to a particular type of receptor.
drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter.
the inability to quit drinking or limit intake of alcohol in spite of strong intention to do so.
Amino acids
acids containing an amine group
drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter.
Antagonistic muscles
pairs of muscles that move a limb in opposite directions.

ex: extensor and flexor
compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine that contain both catechol and an amine.
Computerized Axial Tomography
(CT or CAT scan)
method of visualizing a living brain by injecting a dye into the blood, then passing x-rays through the head and recording them.
an enzyme that converts catecholamines into synaptically inactive forms.
reduction in the level of polarization across a membrane.
a neurotransmitter
tendency of a drug to activate a particular kind of receptor.
also known as adrenaline; a hormone; also used as a neurotransmitter
Excitatory post synaptic potential
the graded depolarization of a neuron
excretion of neurotransmitter through the membrane of a presynaptic terminal and into the synaptic cleft between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
protein coupled to GTP (guanosine triphosphate; energy storing molecule).
(gamma amino butyric acid)
the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter
the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter
Graded potential
membrane potential that varies in magnitude; doesn't follow the all-or-none law.
Horizontal cell
type of cell that receives input from receptors and delivers inhibitory input to bipolar cells.
chemicals secreted by glands and conveyed by the blood to other organs, which are influenced by their activity.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane.
pancreatic hormone that facilitates the entry of glucose into the cells.
Ionotropic effect
synaptic effect that depends on the rapid opening of a gate in the membrane.
(monoamine oxidase)
enzyme that converts catecholamines and serotonin into synaptically inactive forms.
Metabotropic effect
the effect at a synapase that produces a relatively slow but long-lasting effect through metabolic reactions.
nonacidic neurotransmitter containing an amine group formed by a metabolic change of certain amino acids.