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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)
a chemical that is absorbed by neurons that release dopamine or norepinephrine; it then oxidized into toxic chemicals that kill those neurons.
the removal of a structure.
Action potential
rapid depolarization and slight reversal of the usual polarization caused by stimulation beyond the threshold.
stimulant drug that increases the release of dopamine.
morphine derivative that stimulates dopamine receptors.
developmental program by which a neuron kills itself at a certain age unless inhibited from doing so.
single thin fibers of constant diameter that extend from a neuron.
Blood-brain barrier
the mechanism that keeps many chemicals out of the brain.
Central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
liquid similar to blood serum, found in the ventricles of the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord.
Closed head injury
sharp blow to the head resulting from a fall, an automobile or motorcycle accident, an assault, or other sudden trauma that does not actually puncture the brain.
stimulant drug that increases the stimulation of dopamine synapses by blocking the reuptake of dopamine by the presynaptic neuron.
Collateral sprout
newly formed branch from an uninjured axon that attaches to a synapse vacated when another axon was destroyed.
to remove the sensory nerves from a body part.
branching fiber that emanates from a neuron, growing narrower as it extends from the cell body toward the periphery.
Denervation supersensitivity
increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell after removal of an axon that formerly innervated it.
decreased activity of surviving neurons after other neurons are damaged.
formation of the axon and dendrites that gives a neuron its distinctive shape.
Disuse supersensitivity
increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell because of decreased input by incoming axons.
a neurotransmitter.
accumulation of fluid.
change in the frequencies of various genes in a population over generations.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
condition resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol and marked by decreased alertness, hyperactivity, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities.
Focal hand dystonia
musician's cramp, a condition in which the touch responses to one finger overlap those of another, leading to clumsiness, fatigue, and involuntary movements.
GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)
the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter.
molecule composed of carbohydrates and fats.
the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter.
the rupture of an artery.
chemicals secreted by glands and conveyed by the blood to other organs, which are influenced by their activity.
local insufficiency of blood because a blood clot or other obstruction has closed an artery.
Kennard principle
generalization (not always correct) that it is easier to recover from brain damage early in life than later.
damage to a structure.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
method of imaging a living brain by using a magnetic field and a radio frequency field to make atoms with odd atomic weights all rotate in the same direction and then removing those fields and measuring the energy that the atoms release.
Magnetoencephalograph (MEG)
a device that measures the faint magnetic fields generated by the brain's activity.
the movement of neurons toward their eventual destinations in the brain.
Myelin sheath
insulating material that covers many vertebrate axons.
development of a myelin sheath that insulates an axon.
Nerve growth factor (NGF)
protein that promotes the survival and growth of axons in the sympathetic nervous system and certain axons in the brain.
Neural Darwinism
the principle that, in the development of the nervous system, synapses form haphazardly at first, and then a selection process keeps some and rejects others.
cells that receive information and transmit it to other cells by conducting electrochemical impulses. See also Synapses.
a chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons.
area of endangered cells surrounding an area of primary damage.
Phantom limb
the continuing sensation of an amputated body part.
Postcentral gyrus
a gyrus of the cerebral cortex just posterior to the central gyrus; a primary projection site for touch and other body sensations.
Postsynaptic neuron
a neuron on the receiving end of a synapse.
Prefrontal cortex
the anterior portion of the frontal lobe of the cortex, which responds mostly to the sensory stimuli that signal the need for a movement.
monkeys, apes, and humans.
a steroid hormone which, among other functions, prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum and promotes the maintenance of pregnancy.
the production of new cells.
Sham lesion
a control procedure for an experiment, in which an investigator inserts an electrode into a brain but does not pass a current.
Somatosensory system
the sensory network that monitors the surface of the body and its movements.
Spinal cord
the part of the CNS found within the spinal column; it communicates with the sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.
Stem cells
undifferentiated cells that can divide and produce daughter cells that develop more specialized properties.
Stereotaxic instrument
a device for the precise placement of electrodes in the head.
Stimulant drugs
drugs that tend to produce excitement, alertness, elevated mood, decreased fatigue, and sometimes increased motor activity.
Stroke (cerebrovascular accident)
the temporary loss of normal blood flow to a brain area.
points of communication at the gap between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle.
the formation of synapses.
the roof of the midbrain.
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
a drug that breaks up blood clots.