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41 Cards in this Set

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ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR
Behavior that benefits someone other than the individual engaging in the behavior.
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
Change in a population's genetic frequencies as a result of breeder's selection of desired individuals for mating.
AUTOSOMAL GENE
Any gene on any chromosome that is NOT a sex ( X & Y ) chromosome.
BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Study of physiological, evolutionary, & developmental mechanisms of behavior & experience.
CHROMOSOME
Gene bearing DNA strand.
CROSSING OVER
Exchange of parts between 2 chromosomes during replication.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID ( DNA )
Double-stranded chemical chromosomes are composed of this; template for RNA synthesis.
DOMINANT GENE
Gene that shows strong effect on both homo and heterozygous conditions.
DUALISM
Belief that mind & body exist indepedently but somehow interact.
"EASY" PROBLEMS
Questions pertaining to certain concepts of consciousness; difference between awake & asleep, attention mechanisms.
ENZYME
Any proteins that catalyze biological reactions.
EVOLUTION
Change in genetic frequency / variety of a population over generations.
EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATION
Understanding a species in terms of evolutionary history; what evolved from what.
FITNESS
Number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations.
FUNCTIONAL EXPLANATION
Understanding why a structure or behavior evolved the way it did; why something served as an advantage and therefore evolutionarily selected.
GENE
Unit of heredity that maintains its structural identity from one generation to the next.
"HARD" PROBLEM
Philosophical questions of why & how brain activity is associated with consciousness.
HERITABILITY
An estimate ranging from 0-1.0 of how much of the variance in a population is due to heredity, rather than environment. (Nature over nuture)
HETEROZYGOUS
Having 2 unlike genes for a given trait.
HOMOZYGOUS
Having 2 identical genes for a given trait.
IDENTITY POSITION
View that mental processes are the same as brain processes but are called by different terms.
KIN SELECTION
Selection for a gene because it benefits individual's relatives.
LAMARCKIAN EVOLUTION
A discredited theory that evolutionn proceeds through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
MATERIALISM
View that everything that exists is material or physical.
MENTALISM
View that only the mind exists.
MIND-BODY / MIND-BRAIN PROBLEM
Question of how the mind is related to the brain.
MONISM
The theory that mental & physical substances are the same; opposite of dualism.
MULTIPLIER EFFECT
A tendency for small genetic / prenatal influences to alter the environment in a way that the change is magnified.
MUTATION
The change in a gene during reproduction.
ONTOGENIC EXPLANATION
Understanding a structure or behavior in terms of how it developed.
PHENYLKETONURIA ( PKU )
The inherited inability to metabolize a phenylalanine leading to mental retardation unless the afflicted person stays on a strict low phenylalanine diet throughout childhood.
PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION
Understanding a behavior in terms of how it is related to the activity of the brain and other organs.
PROBLEM OF OTHER MINDS
Difficulty in knowing whether other people / animals have conciousness.
RECESSIVE GENE
A gene that affects a homozygous condition, but not heterozygous.
RECOMBINATION
Reassortment of genes during reproduction leading to a characteristic not apparent in either parent.
RIBONUCLEIC ACID ( RNA )
A single strand chemical that serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules.
SEX-LIMITED GENE
A gene that primarily influences one sex.
SOCIOBIOLOGY
The field concerned with how & why various social behaviors evolved.
SOLIPSISM
The philosophical position of 'I alone exist -- I alone am concious'.
X CHROMOSOME
Chromosome of which female mammals have 2 and males have 1.
Y CHROMOSOME
Chromosome of which male mammals have 1 and females have none.