Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/271

Click to flip

271 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Nutrition is composed of 3 components...what are they?
Food
Nutrient Function
Disease
What you eat...
It's purpose
How it can help or hurt you
A nutrient's purpose is to provide _____. The unit this is measured in is the____.
ENERGY
Kilocalorie
Define Kilocalorie
Amount of heat needed to raise 1Kg of water 1 degree celsius
Nutrients provide _____, ____, ______, _____, and ____ that the body CAN'T make at all or can not produce sufficent amounts.
Protein
Fat
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
When you think of nutrients think FOOD. SO what does food break down to become? Food provides what 5 things to the body?
How are Nutrients (food) classified?
Kilocalorie Producing and Noncaloric
What gives you energy and what doesn't
Name the 4 Kilocalorie producing nutrients.
Protein
Fat
Carbohydrates
Alcohol
Name the 3 Non caloric producing nutrients.
Water
Minerals
Vitamins
Energy is broken down in a process called metabolism (ability to digest). Products of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and alcohol generate energy when they are ____.
Oxidized
Energy can be used immediately or be stored as ___.
ATP (adenosine tri phosphate)
When ATP is needed it is _____ to form ADP+Pi.
Hydrolyzed
Add water to break bond
When Fat is broken down (catbolized) what other 5 nutrients are needed to aid in its metabolism?
Biotin
Copper
Iron
Mg

*Thiamine is also important
Potassium
In alpha order
B,C,I,M,P
When proteins are broken(catabolized) down what other nutrient is needed for its metabolism.
B6 (Pyridoxine)
1 nutrient for PROTEIN
-Its a B vitamin

This transaminates proteins
When Carbohydrates are broken down (catbolized) what 2 nutrients are needed.
Mg
Phosphorus
*Thaimine is also important
2 nutrients for CARBOHYDRATES
-M,P
ALL nutrients need these 3 things to be metabolized
FAD (Riboflavin)
Niacin (NAD)
CoA (Pantothenic Acid)
What are the caloric values from the 4 nutrients?
Carb and Proteins= 4
Alcohol= 7
Fat= 9
What is the caloric value of cholesterol?
0
The more energy that you intake= the energy you are able to expend. What are the 3 ways the body expends its energy?
Physical Activity
Resting Metabolic Rate
Thermal Effect of Food
What is the RME?
-How much of the body's energy does it use each day?
It is what keeps you lungs, hrt going. Your internal organs operating, brain functioning, and body warm.

The RME uses 2/3 the body's energy each day
How can one figure out there RME?
Use the Harris-Benedict Formula
What decreases someone's RME?
(2 things)
Malnutrition- loss of muscle mass
Age
What increases your RME?
Everything else...

Growth
Preganacy
Illness/Fever
Excess Thyroid Hormone
Increased Body Mass (higher proportion of muscle)
If one increases there activity level what happens to there RME?
RME increases with an increase in activity level
To GAIN weight you have to do what?
Increase Energy Intake and/or
Decrease Energy Expenditure
What happens to your RME, TEF, and physical activity if you decrease your energy expenditure.
They all decrease
To lose weight you have to do what?
Decrease Energy Intake and/or
Increase Energy Expenditure
What happens to your RME, TEF, and physical activity if you increase your energy expenditure?
All increase
Fat tissue is what % of the body?

Water is what % of the body?
Fat tissue is 85% of body mass

Water is 15% of body mass
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
What is the amount of energy you get from proteins?
4kcal/gram
Where are proteins found structurally in the body?
Collagen of the bone, teeth, and skin
Skeleton
Dentition
Botox
What types of hormones are protiens?
Insulin
Thyroxine
Growth Hormone
Diabetes
Homeostasis
Growth and Development
What type of enzymes are proteins?
Amylase
Pepsin
Lipase
Mouth
Stomach
Intestine
Name 3 Transport Proteins
Lipoproteins
Transferrin
Hemoglobin
---
Fe
Oxygen
Name 2 Antibodies that are protiens
Interferon (Inf)
IgA

Saliva Immunoglobulin
Name a binding protien
Ferritin
Fe
How does protein act as a buffer in saliva
Sialin (pH balance)
What are the basic building blocks of protiens?
Amino Acids
What do all Amino acids have? (functional groups)

Why is this important?
NH2

NH2 distinguishes it from proteins, carbs,fats, and alcohols.
How many AA exists?
How many are essential in adults?
How many are essential in children?
There are 20 AA
-About 8 are essential in adults
-More are essential in children
What does it mean if an AA is considered non essential?
The body can metabolize it from Carbohydrate Metabolism
Name the 8 ESSENTIAL AA in adults?
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methonine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophane
Valine
Alpha order
I,L,L,M,P,T,T,V

I Love Lucy
MeeT The Parents
V for vendetta
What are the 2 additional ESSENTIAL AA in children?

What are the 2 additional Essential AA for Premature Infants?
Arginine
Histidine

For Preme's
Cysteine
Tyrosine
What are the two forms that proteins are found in while in the blood?
Dipeptides
Polypeptides
2 or more
How are AA joined together
By peptide bonds
-Carboxyl group binding to an amino group of another AA.
What enzymes break down proteins (AA>peptide bonds)? Where are they located?
Stomach(2)=
-Renin
-Pepsin

Pacrease (4)=
-Trypsin
-Chyromtrypsin
-Elastase
-Carboxypeptidase

Intestinal Mucosa (2)=
-Amino Peptidase
-Dipeptidase
2 in the stomach
4 from the pancrease
2 from the intestinal mucosa
Where are most proteins digested and absorbed?
Digested in the Stomach= Little// Absorbed a little

Digested in the Intestine= A LOT!!// Absorbed a lot!!
Glucogenic AA lose ____ and through a series of rxn's become _____. Which will eventually enter the _____.
Lose NH2 (amino group)
Become Pyruvate to go through TCA cycle
Ketogenic AA lose ____ and through a series of rxn's become a _____ which becomes a ___ and goes into ____ tissue.
NH2 (amino group)
Fatty Acid
Triglycerol
Fat (Adipose Tissue)
In overnutrition, ___ is produced and ____ accumulate in adipose tissue.
NH4
TG (triglycerols)
___ is the standard for complete protein amount (have all 8 essential aa).

-What foods have incomplete protein amount?
Eggs have a complete amount
-Most animal sources do...except for gelatin and soy

Plants proteins have and incomplete protein amount
FOR vegetarians

Grains are limited in ____.
Peas/Beans are limited in ___.
Grains has limited Lysine
Legumes have limited Methonine
FAT
FAT
FAT
How much energy can you get from fat?
9kcal/g
Which FA MUST be obtained from diet?

Why is this important?
Linoleic acid
-Importance: Component of CELL MEMBRANE and Maintains body temperature
What are the basic building blocks of Fats?
Fatty Acid (FA)
-Carboxyl group (COOH)
FA are in what 2 forms?
Saturated FA
Unsaturated FA
What is a Saturated FA?
Give an example.
Each C atom has a MAX of 2 H attached to it...
Ex: Palmitic Acid, Palm and Coconut oil
-NO double bonds
Monounsaturated FA (Fat) are described as what? Give an example.

Where can I find these FA's?
Has 1 double bond
-can be is cis/trans orientation

Ex: Oleic Acid

Found in Olive Oil, Canola Oil, Peanuts, and Avocado's
Trans FA are described as what?
Why would you want a trans FA?

Where are these mostly found

Are these BAD or GOOD?
Hydrogenated Unsaturated Fats.

Why?: Lengthens Shelf Life

Found in Baked Goods

BAD= Atherogenic(contribute to the collection of fat in blood vessels)
Polyunsaturated Fats are described as what?
Give one example.

___ FA aids in the function of nerve and brain tissue development. ___is a good source

_____ are necessary for growth. Found in ____.
Has more that one double bond in chain

Ex: Linolenic Acid (Must obtain from diet)

Brain and Nerve:
Omega-3-FA;Fish

Growth:
Omega-6-FA;Vegtable Oils
Why Linolenic Acid an essential fatty acid.
Precursor to prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Dietary Fats are in the form of ____. These are composed of a____ and 3____.

What enzymes (2) do we have that break the FA from the glycerol?
TG
-glycerol + 3 FA's

Enzymes(2): Gastric and Intestinal Lipase
Choleserol is only associated with foods that are high in _____fat.

Sterol is used as a _____ covering nerve tissue, precursor of ____ and _____.

Can the body make all the cholesterol it needs?
SATURATED (no double bonds)

Component of cell membranes, Precursor of steroid hormones and Vitamin D

Yes the body can make all the cholesterol it needs
____produces cholesterol.
Pantothenic Acid (CoA)
Where is fat digested and absorbed the most?
Little in the Stomach

Most in the Sm. Intestine
What reduces cholesterol levels?
Fiber
Keeps you regular (Wink..wink)
A TG is 3 FA and glycerol.
-What happens to the glycerol and FA when metabolized.
FA is converted to acetate which is then modified to Acetyl CoA via the addition of CoA and enters the TCA cycle

Glycerol is converted into pyruvate and goes into TCA cycle
What happens if you have too much fat (overnutrition)?
Body uses acetic acid instead of acetate

FA are converted into TG and TG goes into adipose tissue
CARBS
CARBS
CARBS
What are the building blocks of carbs? Give an example?
Monosaccharides
Ex:Glucose
This is the preferred source for cells
-Others include Fructose, Galatose, and Mannose
How much energy can you get from carbs?
4kcal/gram
Carbs provide the basic chemical structure for ___ production.
Non essential AA production
Name 3 Disaccharides?
Sucrose= Glucose + Fructose
Lactose= Glucose + Galactose
Maltose= Glucose + Glucose
What enzymes break disacarides into monosaccharides?
Saliva(1)
Duodenum(1)
Intestinal Cells(4)
Saliva: Alpha Amylase
Duodenum: Pancreatic Amylase
Intestinal Cells: Sucrase, Lactase, Maltase, Isomaltase
Name a nondigestible carbohydrate.
Fiber
Define a polysaccharide
Complex carbohydrate with more than 6 monosaccharides
-Usually all glucose
Name 3 digestible polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Dextrin
Name 4 nondigestible carbohydrate
Why is it non digestible
Cellulose (identical to starch)
Fiber
Pectin
Hemicellulose
B/c humans can only digest alpha bonds. Animals have cellulase which splts beta bonds
Where are carbohydrates mostly digested and absorbed
Mouth:Digestion
-Starch>>Dextrins

Stomach: NONE

Small Intestine:
Most Digested here
ALL are absorbed here
State the metabolism of carbohydrates
Monosaccharide>>>Pyruvate>>>Acetate>>>>Acetyl CoA>>>TCA cycle
State how the metabolism of a carbohydrate changes in overnutrition.(3 scenarios)
Some Monosaccharides get stored as glycogen in the liver

Some go into the TCA cycle

Some go from acetyl coA and become FA which get converted into TG and stored in adipose tisse
Define Cariogenic potential.
The ability of food to cause plaque to drop below a pH of 5

Root surfaces only need a pH of 6.7 to be cariogenic
1)Cariogenic potential is related to the proportion of _____ in food.If 15% or more of the weight of your food is simple sugars, food is high in sugar.

2)Cariogenic potential is also related to ____ in contact with tooth. The sticker the food the more likely it will stay on the tooth. More snacks also leads to a higher caries incidence
Simple sugars

Time
What other nutrients can you eat at the same time that are protective factors in relation to cariogenic potential.
Ca
Phosphorus
Fluoride
Protein
Fat
____ clears food and neutralizes acids.
-Medications and age affect its output.
Saliva
Name 5 Non nutritive sweeteners (0 in calories)
Aspartame (Nutrasweet//Equal)
Saccharine (Sweet and Low)
Sorbitol, Mannitol, Xylitol
Ace K (Sunett)
Suralose (Splenda)
Aspartame is a dipeptide ester of ____ and ____.

It is ___X sweeter than sucrose.

T/F: Aspartame is associated with caries.

Should anyone not eat aspartame sweeteners?
Aspartic Acid
Phenylalanine

200

F: Aspartame is NOT associated with caries. It actually prohibits the growth of S. Mutans

People with PKU (phenylketonuria)
Saccharine (Sweet and Low) is an ____ compound used mainly in the form of sodium salt.

Sweeter than aspartame but taste ___ at concentrations above .01%.
Organic

Bitter
Sorbitol, Mannitol, and Xylitol are sugar_____ .

Xylitol is NOT associated with caries b/c _____ cant utilize it.

Frequent use of sorbitol and mannitol can ____caries in xerostomic pts BUT not as much as natural sugars
Sugar Alcohols

S.Mutans

Increase
Ace-K is used in baked goods b/c of what characteristic?
It retains its sweetness when heated

*200X sweeter than regular sugar
Cyclamates were banned in the US b/c of suspicious that it caused ____ in humans
Cancer
Alcohol
Alcohol
Alcohol
How much energy do you get from alcohol.
7kcal/g
How is alcohol produced by ___ of carbohydrates.
Fermentation
Alcohol is digested and absorbed where?
Alcohol IS NOT DIGESTED it is absorbed in the stomach mostly and a small amount in the small intestine.
What is the metabolism of alchol?
Alcohol (ethanol) is converted into acetylaldehyde (TOXIC) into acetic acid and then into Acetyl CoA>>>TCA cycle
_____ clears alcohol from the bloodstream by utilizing NAD and NADP as electron acceptors

How do people develop tolerance.
Alcohol Dehydrogenase

Tolerance to alcohol is obtained when a person consumes excess alcohol and NAD/NADP is unable to keep up (they are not recycled fast enough) and alcohol levels build up.
Are there any oral effects due to alcohol use.
Not well known, although one study suggested that PDD was associated with moderate drinking (b/c drinkers often smoke too)
-gingival bleeding
-attatchment loss
-caries (due to reduced salivary flow and neglect in oral hygiene)
-enamel erosion (GERD)
-Glossitis and Angular Chelosis b/c vitamin deficiences b/c alcohol replaces food
Smoking and drinking are _____ risk factors for oral cancer that produce an ____ effect when combined.
Independent; Additive
Are there any surgical complications associated with alcohol use
Yes;
1)with liver disease>>>unable to make clotting factors>>>excessive bleeding

2) Vitamin deficiences
What is the main reason alcoholics are at high risk for oral cancers?
Because Acetylaldehyde is a CARCINOGEN (TOXIC to tissues....oh my
CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMINS
CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMINS
CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMINS
How are vitamins classified (2 groups)
Fat soluble
Water soluble
Fat floats
Name the 4 Fat Soluble vitamins.

What is needed to absorb these vitamins?

Where are these vitamins stored?

Are any of these vitamins toxic?
-What is the onset of disease due to deficiencies.
A
D
E
K

Fat is needed to absorb these vitamins

Stored in fat tissue

Toxic? Yes esp D and A
-take forever (months to years for a deficiencies
Which vitamins are Water soluble vitamins (9)?

Storage is limited in the body for these vitamins BUT they are not____@ high levels.

Deficiency onset?
Vitamin C
Thiamin
Riboflavin (FAD)
Niacin (NAD)
B6 (Pyridoxine)
B12
Folic Acid
Biotin
Pantothenic Acid (CoA)

TOXIC

Deficiencies develop rapidly
weeks to months
What is Vit A role in night vision....

Retinol in the blood combines with ____to for _____. This combines with opsin to form_____.
Retinol combines with O2 to form retinaldehyde. Retinaldehyde combines with opsin to for rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is in the rods of the retina
_____ and ____ are components of the macular pigment in the eye.

Why the heck is this important?
Lutein and Zeaxanthin

Importance: L and Z in low levels increase the risk of macular degeneration
How can you tell if a pt is deficient if vit A?

Wound Healing?
Oral Mucosa?
Taste?
Salivary Flow?
Enamel?
Impaired Wound Healing
Shedding of oral mucosa (desquamation)
Decreased Taste Sensitivity
Xerostomia due to atrophy of salivary glands
Arrested enamel development
What is Bitot's Spot and how does it relate to vit A?
Bitot's Spot is a spot on the cornea and is seen in vit A deficiency.

It is due to dryness of the cornea
Deficiency in mucous secretion lead to drying of the _____ and enhanced keratin synthesis. this is know clinically as _____.

Progressive keratinization of the cornea is known clinically as____.
Epithelial
Follicular Hyperkeratosis:rough skin
Xeropthalamia
Is Retinol toxicity common?

If alot of B-carotene intake,...what happens to skin and mucous tissues?
NO
But it has been seen. Teratogenic effects in pregnacy leading to developmental abnormalities

B-carotene excess leads to yellow skin and mucous membranes
Vitamin E (tocopherols)is an antioxidant like vit A.

____ is the most common acitve form.

Major sources of vit E are in seed oils, dark leafy vegetables and ____.
Alpha tocopherol is the most active form

Liver (yuck) has vit E
Signs that someone is def in vit E.
-RBC's?
-Rare in humans except _____ and _____ disease
Hemolysis of RBC
Premature Infants;Fat Malabsorption disease (cystic fibrosis and obstruction of bile duct)
Taste Lectures
Taste Lectures
Taste Lectures

Name the 4 cell types in the taste bud
Basal Cell
Merkel Like Cell
Dark Cell
Light Cells
Dark Basal

Miller Light
What are the 5 categories of taste
Sweet
Sour
Salty
Bitter
Umami
Give 2 examples in the sweet category

Sweet taste sensation is on the anterior part of tongue
Sweet= Carbohydrates (glucose, surcrose) and AA (aspartame)
Define Sour

Sour taste sensation is on the lateral part of tongue
Acids and low pH
Define Salty. Give 2 examples.

Salty is on the anterio/lateral part of tongue
Monovalent Cations
-Sodium and Potassium
T or F: Many chemicals are bitter. Some of these are even toxic

Bitter taste sensation is at the back of tongue
T
Where are taste receptors located?
On cell surface of taste cells
What catalyzes the conversion from ATP to cAMP
-Why is this important?
Adenylate Cyclase

Importance: Adenylate Cyclase and cAMP increase in epithelial cells after tasting sweet substances
What compound competively inhibits sweet taste sensation.
4,6 Dichloro 4,6 dideoxy- alpha D galactosepyranoside

What de he***!
What else happens when sweet senstion is distrubed by a competive inhibitor (2 things)
K channels close
Action potentials occur
cAMP increases depend of ___ receptors.
G Protein coupled receptors
The term G protein refers to bound ___ (inactive)or unbound ____ active
GDP= INACTIVE= BOUND
GTP= ACTIVE= UNBOUND
Receptor proteins and G proteins are separate,but work together. T or F.
T
Stopped Taste..Started Kralle Lect 2
Kralle Lect 2
Krall Lecture 2
Vit D is a _____ that regulates serum ___ levels.
Vit D is a HORMONE that regulates serum Ca levels.
How does Vit D regulate serum Ca levles (3 ways)
Increases Intestinal Absorption of Ca

Decreases Ca+ loss from kidney

Mobilizes Ca+ from bone
Intestine
Kidney
Bone
Name the 2 forms of vit D.
-Which is the major form?
-Does the form come from animal or plant sources?
-Which is formed in the skin
Cholecalciferol (d3)
-major form
-food is from animal sources
-formed in skin from
Ergocalciferol (d2)
-food is from plant sources
Cholecalciferol can be formed in the skin from _____ when exposed to UV radiation.
7dehydrocholesterol
Vitamin D3 is converted in the liver to 25 OH D by _____.
25 hydroxylase converts vit d3 to 25(OH)VitD
25(OH)D3 is converted to 1,25 (OH)2D in the ____ by what enzyme.
Kidney
1 alpha hydroxylase
After leaving the kidney 25(OH)2D goes to what 3 places
Intestine
Bone
Parathyroid Gland
25 hydroxy vit D and 1,25 hydroxy vit D. Identify there characteristics.

-Biologically Active Form
-Major form in the blood
-Used to determine vit D status
-Conversion occurs mainly in the kidney
Binds to receptors on intestinal,parathyroid, osteoblast, renal cells, and many other cells
Biologically Active Form= 1,25 vit D

Major form in the blood= 25 OH D 3

Determines Vit D status= 25 OH D3
-range is greater than 10ng/ml
Conversion occurs mainly in the kidney= 1,25 OHD3
Binds to receptors in intestinal,parathyroid, osteoblast, renal cells, and other cells= 1,25 OH D3
T or F: season, latitude, age and sunscreen all affect vit D production.
T
Most vit D is produced in the skin in the ____ season.

Most vit D is produced between the ages of ___-_____
Summer Season
10-60 years
Vit D deficiency in children is clinically called____. These children will have enamel____,delayed _____, and ______ of developing tooth
Rickets
-Enamel HYPOplasia
-Delayed tooth eruption
-HYPOmineralization of developing tooth
Adults with vit D deficiency are said to have ____clinically.
Osteomalcia
Awarness about vit D and fortification of ____ has largely eliminated rickets
MILK
Vit D toxicity leads to ____ and elevated levels of ____ in tissue.
Loss of ____ and nausea. Failure to thrive in infants.
Hypercalcemia
Elevated Ca levels
Loss of appetite and nausea

*cant overdose on vit d due to sunlight
Name sources of vit D
Milk
Egg Yolk
Fish oils
Chocolate (oh la la)
what is the recommended exposure time in sunlight per week
15 min 2-3x a wk
Major food source for vit D is____.
Green Leafy Vegetables
Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of ____ and other clotting factors.

Vit K is also responsible for the synthesis of ____ proteins which are components of protein matrix of bone. An example of this type of protein is ____.

Major food source for vit K is ____.

_____ also synthesize vit K
Prothrombin
Gla-Proteins (Osteocalcin)
Green Leafy Vegetables
Intestinal Bacteria
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) aids in the synthesis of ___.

Vit C is an ____.

Vit C aid in the absorption of ___ from intestinal tract and its metabolism
Synthesis of collagen

Antioxidant

Absorption of Fe form intestinal tract.
C is for ____.
If someone is deficient in Vit C they will have what signs and symptoms?
Impaired Wound Healing

Blood vessel Fragility-Petechiae

Scurvy- Swollen bleeding gingiva

Increase in candiadiasis
Wound Healing
Blood vessels
Gingiva
Candidiasis
Where can one get Vit C
Fruits and vegetables
-raw better
Fortified juices//cerels
Thiamin is important component of coenzymes___ (removes CO2 from pyruvate so it can enter TCA cycle)and ____ (removes CO2 form an intermediate in TCA cyle)which is necessary for the metabolism of ____ and ____.

Thiamin is also need to activate an enzyme for ___ synthesis.

Major food source of Thiamin
TPP (pyruvate)
TDP (int in TCA cycle)

Carbs and Fat

Activates enzyme in ribose synthesis

Grains, Meat, Fish , Poultry
Riboflavin is a component of coenzyme _____ and _____ (which are involved in the electron transport system of energy production)

Riboflavin also activates enzyme need for ___ synthesis.

Major sources of Riboflavin
FMN
FAD

Involved in AA synthesis

Meat, Fish, Poultry and Grains (same for thiamin but + meat)
Niacin is a component of ___ and ____ which are involed in the electron transport system of energy production

Body can make Niacin from AA ____.

Major source of Niacine is in what foods
NAD
NADP

Tryptophan can make Niacin

Liver (yuck), poultry, peanuts, legumes
*Can get tryptophan from all these sources + cheese
Cobalamin (vit b12) is a coenzyme for ___ and ___ for the synthesis of DNA.

Found in foods
Purine
Pyrimidine

Meat, Liver (yuck), milk, eggs, breakfast cereals
B6 (Pyridoxine)is a component of ____which is a coenzyme in MANY rxns.
-AA?
-Converts tryptophane into ___.
-Breaks down ___.
Synthesis of ___ precursors, ___ and ____.

Major sources meat, liver, whole grains and legumes
Transamination
tryptophane>>>Niacine
Glycogen
Syntheisis of Nucleic Acid Precursors,hemoglobin and NT
Besides B12, ___ is also involed in the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine synthesis.

Conversion of ___ to AA ___ (also vit B12)
Folacin
Homecysteine>>>Methionine
Pantothenic Acid (CoA) is used in the ____cycle from calorie producing nutrients.

Syntheis of
_____, _____, _____hormones, and some _____.

Major food sources are ____, _____,_____, and ____.
Hemoglobin
Cholesterol
Steroid Hormones
SOME AA

Food Sources= liver, eggs whole grains and legumes
____ is used to transfer carboxyl groups necessary in metabolic rxns.

Like B12 and Folacin ____ is involved in ___ synthesis.

_____ is involved with the synthesis and oxidation of _____. Oxidation of _____.

Major food sources Liver, egg yolk, nuts and legumes

____ can also produce ___.
Biotin

Biotin;Purine Synthesis

Biotin;Synthesis and oxidation of FA; Oxidation of carbohydrates

Intestinal Bacteria can also produce Biotin
(like vit K)
Name the Macronutrients Minerals (6)
Magnesium
Sodium
Chlorine
Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Many Say, Chlorine in Cali
Posses Problems

Name the Trace Minerals (7)
Copper
Fluoride
Iron
Iodine
Maganese
Selinium
Zinc
All the other minerals not in the mneumonic Many Say Chlorine in Cali posses problems
What are the functions of Ca?
Mineralization?
Blood?
Muscles?
-Impulses?
Catalyst?
Tooth Developement?
Mineralization of Bones and teeth
-Hydroxyappetite (98% of Ca in bones//teeth)
Blood Coagulation
Muscle Contraction
-nerve impulses
Catalyst for Lipase
Tooth development in infancy
Most ca comes from dietary products T/F?
T
If one does notmaintaind Ca Homeostasis Ca will be taken from resevoir, T or F?
T
If there is a decrease in serum Ca _____ will increase in blood. This causes intestinal absorption of ca,ca reabsorption in kidney, ca and phophorus release from bone and increase in 1,25 vitd
PTH
If serum ca is elevated PTH will ____ and ca will be excreted in kidney, intestinal absorption will stop, ca and phosphorus will be deposited into bone and the 1,25 (OH)2 level will decrease.
Decrease
Ca will NOT be absorbed if dietary ca intake is less than ____b/c the body uses 200 mg per day.

You must consume a minimum of ____mg of ca/day to cover loss of ca per day
200 mg

400 minimum intake of ca per day
What enhances the absorption of Ca
Increases in 1,25 (OH)2 via PTH
Growth
Pregnancy and Lactation
Primary Hyperparathyroidism (increase in PTH)
What decrease Ca absorption.
Decrease in 1,25 (OH)D
-due to vit D deficiency (rickets/osteomalacia)
-chronic kidney disease (1 alpha hydroxylase problems)
-Hypoparathyroidism (low PTH levels)
Glucocorticoids
Malabsorption disease
Other components of diet
-fiber, phytic acid, oxalic acid
Signs of Ca deficiency:
Long Term is _____ and in children you will note _____ and _______.
Long Term: Osteoporosis

Children will have delayed tooth eruption and HYPOmineralization of teeth
Phosphorus is a major component of ____. It is also involved in energy production and storage in the body. It is a component of most ____, a ____ for acid base rxn's and found in meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains.
Hydroxyappetite
Component of most enzymes
Buffer in Acid Base Rxns
Fluoride replaces ___ group in hydroxyapatite crystals. This makes them more resistant to demineralization and enhances remineralization. Fl in saliva inhibits the growth of ___ in plaque
OH group replaced by Fl
Inhibits growth of S. Mutans in plaque
Fl deficiency leads to ____ BUT Fl excess leads to ____ enamel.
Def: Dental caries
Excess: Mottled Enamel/Brown Staining
What in the heck is Anthropometry?
Data about your height, weight, body fat estimation
Defintions of Overweight and Obesity based on Body Mass Index (BMI)

Ideal Weight has a BMI between ____ and less than ___.

Overweight has BMI between ___ and less than ____.

Obeses has a BMI of ___+
Ideal= BMI 18.5-less than 25
33% of US

Overweight= BMI 25-less than 30
*35% of US

Obese= 30+
*27% of US
BMI= Weight in ___/Height in ___
Weight in kg
Height in meters
Hight BMI increase risk of death from ____, ____ and other diseases,
Cardiovascular Disease
Cancer
If you are moderately overweight you decrease your life expectancy by ____ to ___years.
Mod overweight= decreases life expectancy by 2-5 years
If you are severly overweight you decrease your life expectancy by ___ years
13 years
The waist can be a measurement of weight.

Men over a ___ inch waist are overweight

Women over a ___ inch waist are overweight.
Men= >40 inches= overweight

Women=> 35 inches=overweight
T/F: Levels in the Blood and Urine can measure nutrients, metabolites, transport proteins, and enzymes?

T/F: Levels of some nutrients reflect only recent intakes.
T;T
Name the B family nutrients
Thiamin (TDP, TPP)
Niacin (NAD, NADP)
Riboflavin (FAD,FMN)
B12 (coblamin)
B6 (pyridoxine)
What happens if you have a vit B deficiency?

Def in Niacin=
Def in Riboflavin=

Other signs include:
Tongue (5)?
Dermatitis other places?
Def in Niacin= Dermatitis on face and neck

Def in Riboflavin= Cheilosis (lips) and Angular Stomatitis

Other signs include:
Burning Tongue,Tongue Fissures, Papillary atrophy on tongue,glossitis, abnormal tongue color (magenta/scarlet)

Dermatitis on nose lips and other areas exposed to sun
Vit A deficiency upon clinical examination displays:
Skin?
Healing?
Saliva?
Cornea?
Vit A Def:
-Rough Skin (keratinized)
-Impaired wound healing
-Xerostomic
-Bitot's Spot on cornea (dry cornea)
Excess vit A clinically is seen in ____ and presents:
Skin?
Anorexia
Yellow Skin//Mucosa due to B-carotene
Vit C deficiency will present with:
Skin?
Gums?
Healing?
Petechiae
Scurvy-gums bleed
Delayed Wound healing
Vit D def will present:
In Children
-legs?
-ribs?
-muscles?

Signs of excess vit D include
-Pain in ___ and ____.
-Nausea
-Anorexia
Vit D def in children
-bowed legs
-rachitic ribs
-weak muscles

Excess= Pain in bones and joints
Fe deficiency will present:

_____ and pale____ and _____.
Angular cheilosis
Pale Lips and oral mucosa
Zn deficiency will lead to a loss or distortion of ___ and ____. Also delayed ____.
Zn deficiency will have loss or distorted sense of taste and smell ; delayed wound healing
The essential FA _____ when deficient will present with ____ skin.
Linoleic Acid
-Keratinized Rough Skin
What is the difference between food frequency questionaires and food collection analysis.
Questionaire= good for measuring long term diet, overestimates nutrients, NOT good for calories

Analysis= expensive, high compliance, good for measuring trace nutrients
Uncontrolled growth from cells derived from normal tissue.
Cancer
What are the most common types of cancer
Skin
Lung
Breast
Colon
Prostate
What are the major contributing factors to cancer
Environment and Genetics
Most common diseases have a genetic component
What is a minor contributing factor to cancerq
Nutrition
What nutrients are involved in DNA repair process
Folic Acid
Vit B12
What nutrient allows for cells with abnormal DNA to proliferate
Carotene
What nutrients inactivate carcinogens
Fiber
Vit C, E, A
Selenium
Lycopene
Excess ____ increases carcinogen process
Alcohol
Not enough fruits and vegetables in your diet can increase your risk of which 5 cancers.
Oral
Lung
Bladder
Breast
Skin
Lots of fatty food in your diet will increase your risk of 3 cancers
Colon
Breast
Prostate
Diet high in salt and nitrates (smoked//cured foods) increase your risk of what 2 cancers.
Oral
Stomach
High Alcohol intake increase your risk of what cancer.
Oral
It is not Liver cancer
Name 6 antioxidants
Vit C
Retinol
Lycopene
Carotene
Selenium
Vit E (nuts and oils)
Name 2 E that detoxify carcinogens
Isothiocynates (broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts)
Allium (onions/garlic)
What anticarcinogenic nutrient alters estrogen metabolism
Isoflavones (soybeans)
Decreasing contact with the tissues in the colon shortens transit time and decreases the risk of colon cancer. This is made possible by which nutrient?
Fiber
Why are antioxidants good?
Bind to O2 not letting them contact free radicals
_____ mimic estrogens
Soy beans
Oral cancers are ____ and have a high/low survival rate.
Squamous cell carcinomas
Low survival rate
You see a patient with:
-sores that bleed easily and dont heal readily
-persistent red and white patches and
-has difficulty chewing , swallowing or moving the tongue

Most likely this pt has _____.
Oral Cancer
-Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Uncontrolled growth from cells derived from normal tissue.
Cancer
What are the most common types of cancer
Skin
Lung
Breast
Colon
Prostate
What are the major contributing factors to cancer
Environment and Genetics
Most common diseases have a genetic component
What is a minor contributing factor to cancerq
Nutrition
What nutrients are involved in DNA repair process
Folic Acid
Vit B12
What nutrient allows for cells with abnormal DNA to proliferate
Carotene
What nutrients inactivate carcinogens
Fiber
Vit C, E, A
Selenium
Lycopene
Excess ____ increases carcinogen process
Alcohol
Not enough fruits and vegetables in your diet can increase your risk of which 5 cancers.
Oral
Lung
Bladder
Breast
Skin
Lots of fatty food in your diet will increase your risk of 3 cancers
Colon
Breast
Prostate
What is the optimal systolic and diastolic BP
Less than 120/80
What is the NORMAL systolic and diastolic BP
Less than 130/85
Risk factors for Hypertension include:

Genetics
Age
Ethnicity
Physical INactivity
Obesity
Smoking
Na Intake

For the majority of hypertensive people Na reduction has little effect on ____.
Blood pressure
Much of the Na we eat is already processed in the foods that we eat. T or F
T
Hrt Disease effects:

Males >___ years old

Women >___ years old

People with a family history of premature hrt disease

Smokers

Hypertensive People

Type II Diabetics

Low HDL cholesterol

High LDL cholesterol
Male >45

Women >55
How does athersclerosis develop:

_____ carry lipids from blood across blood vessel ____ layer to _____.

Lipoproteins modified by ___ get stuck in the vessel wall and aggregate. ______ take up these lipoproteins and become ____. These cells accumulate in the vessel wall.

Blood vessel lumen gets narrow
Lipoproteins carry lipids from blood across the blood vessels endothelial layer to the subendothelial layer

Lipoproteins are modified by oxidation. Get stuck. Macrophages eat them and become foam cells
We want ____ LDL's and ___ HDL's

LDL trasports ____.It is converted from ____ and transports lipids to peripheral tissues.

HDL transports _____ and its function is to do what.
LOW LDL

HIGH HDL


LDL transports cholesterol; Converted from VLDL.

HDL transports cholesterol; function is to remove cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver
_____ is a lipoprotein that transports TG. It originates in the ____.

____ is a lipoprotein that transports TG from fat to muscle tissue. It originates in the ___.
Chylomicron; Orginates in the intestine

VLDL; Originates in the liver
What do you want your blood levels to be for

VLDL
HDL
LDL
VLDL- Less than 200

LDL- Less than 130

HDL- More than 60
Foods with Saturated Fats raise serum ____ and ___ level.

Foods with Trans Fat raise ____ and lower ____.

Foods with Cholesterol have a ____ effect on serum cholesterol.

Obesity is associate with high bp, serum ____,_____, and ___ intolerance
Saturated Fat= Increase choleserol + LDL level


Trans Fat= Raise LDL + Lower HDL = BAD

Cholesterol= Moderate effect on serum cholesterol

Obesity= High BP, serum cholesterol, TG, and glucose intolerance
Moderate alcohol raises ___.

Fiber reduces ____ if intake is 15-30 grams per day

Polyunsaturated fats lower ___ modestly.

Omega 3 FA reduce

Monounsaturated FA lower ____.

_____ lowere VLDL.
Alcohol= increases HDL

Fiber= reduces cholesterol

Polyunsaturated fats= lower cholesterol modestly

Omega 3 FA= Reduce platelet aggregation

Monounsaturated FA= Reduce serum cholesterol

Niacin= lowers VLDL
T or F: There are many benefits to takeing B-carotene, vit c, and vit E when at high risk for CVD.
FALSE!!!!
If I want my LDL level to decrease I need food rich in ____.
FIBER
What is the recommended amount of fiber per day
25-38 grams/day
Define anorexia
-body weight is less than ___ % of expected weight
-BMI is less than ___%
Fear of gaining weight and inaccurate perception of body image
Body weight less than 85%
Body Mass index less than 17.5%
Name the physical signs of anorexia
Muscle?
Period?
Water?
Skin/Hair?
Bones?
Muscle Wastin
Amenorrhea
Dehydration
Dry skin/hair
Increased risk of fracuring bones
Oral signs of anorexia include ____, ____, and moderate ____ and ____.
xerostomia
bleeding gums
gingival pockets and peridontal pockets
Xerostomia will present as dry glossy atrophic ____.

_____chelitis.

Inflamed, fissure ____ with partial or total papillary ____.

Unilateral or Bilateral_____ enlargement.

Reduced Saliva
Mucosa

Angular Chelitis

Tongue;Atrohy

Glandular Enlargement
Bulemics have excessive concern about there body image and shape. They will binge eat and then _____, excercise frequently, take _____,_____ and have restrictive diets and fasting periods.

T or F: These pts will have a low BMI.
vomit
laxitive and diuretics

F; BMI is HIGH or normal
Bulemics will present with

Xerostomia
Cracked lip and fissures at the corner of the mouth
Enlarged ____ gland
Eroded _____
Irritation of _____
Thermal Hypersensitivity of teeth.
Enlarged Parotid Gland
Eroded Denal Enamel
Irritation of Dentl Enamel
In a bulemic, the first teeth to show signs of erosion are the ____ surfaces of the ____ teeth
Lingual surfaces of the upper teeth
What is the female athlete triad?
Eat Disorder
Amenorrhea
Osteoporosis

*Oral health compromised= poor peridontal health// enamel erosion
Binge Eating's common complication orally is ____.
Dental Caries
A reduction in bone mineral that results in lowered bone strength and increased risk of fracture with only mid to moderate degree of trauma
Osteoporosis
____,____, and ____ are the most common sites of fracure.
Hips, Spine, Radius
-HIP fracure is the most common cause of death than all the other fractures
Normal bone:

Pores are ____, regular in shape and distribution

Mineral structure is ___ and continuous

Good Support, resistant to breaking
Normal Bone

Small Pores, reg shape

Thick mineral structure
Resorption:
Activation of ____. Resorption of minerals in matrix

Bone Formation

Migration and differentiation of _____. Matrix formation. Mineralization
Resorption= Osteoclast

Formation= Preosteoblast>>Osteoblast
The ___ phase comes before resorption and after formation.
Quiscent Phase
Resorption
Formation
Quiscent Phase
When resorption is greater than formation it results in ____.

This comes with AGE, Hypo_____ and ___ insufficiency.
Osteoporosis
-Age
-Hypogonadism
-Ca insufficiency
Lg Pores
Irregular Shape
Mineral structure thin
Poor support and easily fractured.
Osteoporotic Bone
How does osteoporosis develop
-Failure to reach peak bone mass in early adulthood ___ (ages)

Rapid bone loss in adulthood.
-In women begin during ___ (age 50).
-In men (20%) age is not known
Ages 18-30
Women; Begins in Menopause
BMD
Bone Mass Density
Risk for Osteoporosis:

Age

Gender (Female)
-Being ______.
Gender (Males)
-low ____ levels

____ or ___ ethnicity

Family history with osteoporosis
Age
Gender Female= Postmenopausal
Gender Male= Low testosterone levels
Ethnicity: Whites and Asians
Other risk factors for osteoporosis include:

Thinness or _____
Cigarette Smoking
___levels of physical excercise
Use of ____ and ____.
Thinness or small frame
Smoking
Low physical activity
Meds: Corticosteroids, and Anticonvulsants
Dietary risk include

Low ____, vit(3)_____ , ____

Excess ____, _____, ____ , vit ____
Low Ca, Vit D/B12/K, protein, folate

excesss na,caffine (if low in ca), vit A
Plasma has ___-___ mg/dl of Ca+

All extra Ca goes into the ___.
8-10mg/dl
Extra goes into bone
Vit ___ supplements lower the rate of fracture

____ decreases the amount of caries and has a minimal effect on bone density.
Vit D

Fluoride
How do you decrease your risk for osteoporosis

DONT ____.

Maintain ______.

Drink in _____.

Supplements in ___ and vit ___ also help to decrease the risk. Although vit ___ excess can be harmful.
Dont Smoke
Maintain healthy body weight
Drink in moderation

Supplements= Ca+ and Vit D (harmful in excess)
Diet and oral health in children is important because it plays a role in ___ and ____ development
tooth and orofacial development
Primary Maxilla formation and eruption for:

Hard Tissues is ___ months in Utero

Enamel Completed at ___ to ___ monthes

Eruption occurs at ___ to ___ months
Hard Tissue= 4-6 mo in utero

Enamel completion= 1.5-11 mo

Eruption 7.5-24 mo
Primary Mandibular tissue formation and eruption:

Hard Tissue= ___-____mo in utero

Enamel completion= ____-____mo

Eruption= ____ to ___ mo
Hard Tissue= same as maxilla 4-6 mo in utero

Enamel completion= 2-10 mo

Eruption=6-20 mo
Secondary Dentition
Hard Tissue develops from ___ to ___ years

Enamel completed ___ to ___ years

Eruption= ____- ____ years
Hard Tissue= Birth to 3 years

Enamel completed= 2.5-8 years

Eruption=6-13 years
If mother's diet is deficient in:

Protein/Calories than the child will experience ____.

Vit A def in mother's diet will lead to child having ____.

Ca/Vit D? (3 things)

Fluoride def leads to ___ and increased ___ risk

Multiple vit (folic acid)def?
Delayed tooth eruption and small tooth size due to lack of protein/calories

Vit A def= Enamel Hypoplasia

Ca/Vit D def= delayed tooth eruption, enamel hypoplasia, and hypermineralization

Fl= demineralization and increased caries risk

Multi vit= cleft lip/cleft palate
If mother's has excess

Alcohol?
Vit A?
Fluoride?

in her diet the child will have what effects.
Alcohol= Cleft lip/palate

Vit A= Cleft lip/palate

Fl= Mottled enamel
Masticatory function is a measure of ____.
chewing efficency
____ wearers have higher

-Serum cholesterol
-Weight
-More Diabetics
-Intake of sugar t
Denture Wearers
If a cereal is to qualify for soluble fiber and hrt disease thant it must be

low in ____, ____ , and ____.
Low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol

Contain less than .6 grams of fiber per seving
1 serving provides ___ of fiber,
1 serving= 1 gram of fiber
FDA approves food/supplements with high Ca and no excess ____ for decreasing risk of osteoporosis
High Ca
No Phosphorus
FDA approves food low in ___ for decreasing risk of cancer
Low in Fat
FDA approves food that is low in ___, ____ and ___ to decrease risk of hrt disease.
Low in Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol
FDA approves foods with ___, ___ and ___ to combat dental caries
xylitol
mannitol
Isomalt