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71 Cards in this Set

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Generating Force
The pulse of energy that starts a wave.
Restoring Force
The force that brings a wave back to order.
Gravity Waves
These depend more greatly on the Earth's pull than the water surface tension to be restored.
Capillary Waves
These are small and have the surface tension of water restore them.
Orbit
The circular motion a particle moves as a wave passes through.
Celerity
Length÷Period = Speed of a Wave
Period
Generated by generating force and is the time required for two successive crests to pass a point in a space.
Deep-Water Wave
It occurs in water that is deeper than ½ its length.
The water particle orbits will not reach the sea floor in these.
Progressive Wind Waves
Generated by the moving air and restored by gravity, these move along a particular direction.
Often formed in local storm centers or in the trade and westerly belts.
Fetch
The distance over water that the wind blows in the same direction.
Episodic Waves
These are abnormally large and can suddenly appear unrelated to local sea conditions.
Sea State Code
Ranges from SS0 ➔ SS9.
Describes the intensity of waves from calm to hurricane.
Related to the Beaufort Scale.
Shallow-Water Wave
(D < L∕20)
Depth less than 1/20 of the Wavelength
Particle orbits move back-and-forth with sea floor in elliptical motions.
Seismic Sea Wave
AKA Tsunami and NOT tidal waves.
Rip Currents
The regions of rapid seaward flow.
Diurnal Tide
A regular pattern that occurs of one high and one low each day.
Semidiurnal Tide
A pattern in which there are two high and two lows each day.
Semidiurnal Mixed
A pattern in which there are two high and two lows each day, but the highs and lows are not respectively even.
High Water
Greatest point of a tide during a day.
Low Water
Least depth of a tide during a day.
Mean Tide
Calculated by measurements taken over many years, this is the average height of the water in an area.
Tidal Datum
Typically the mean low water a tide;
Used by sailors to assure the actual water depth at all times.
Minus Tide
A hazardous situation in which the water is lower than the tidal datum, or mean low tide.
Flood Tide
Rising water.
Ebb Tide
Receding water.
Equilibrium Tidal Theory
Mathematically ideal wave forms behaving uniformly in response to the laws of physics. (A method to analyze tides.)
Dynamic Tidal Analysis
Assuming that tides are to be studied as they occur naturally, modified by a multitude of random factors. (A method to analyze tides.)
Centrifugal Force
An apparent force present when one judges motion against a rotating frame of reference.
In tides, it is the force that pulls the moon away from the Earth, thus balancing the moon's pull toward the Earth.
Centripetal Force
The gravitational force that holds the Earth in Orbit.
Tidal Day
24 hours and 50 minutes.
Tidal Wave
The longterm high and low points that form a tide during the day mark this.
The wavelength is ½ the Earth's circumference.
The period is about 12 hours and 25 minutes.
Spring Tides
These result from the alignment of Earth, Sun, and Moon during full Moon (and new).
Two waves are essentially forming together, creating a huge range between high and low.
Neap Tides
Produced during Moon’s first and last quarters, these have low amplitudes.
Progressive Wave
The tide wave moving across the sea surface like a shallow-water wave.
Standing Wave Tide
Reflection of a tide wave from the edge of continents.
Rotary Standing Wave Tide
Includes a node reduced to a central point, while the tide crest progresses around the edges of the basin.
Amphridromic Point
The central point, or node, for a rotary tide.
Tidal Bore
A wall of turbulent water that appears when a forced wave breaks.
Coast
Where the land meets the sea.
Shore
Region from the outer limit of wave action on the bottom to the limit of the waves' direct influence on land.
Beach
Accumulation of sediment that occupies a portion of the share.
Eustatic Change
Worldwide shift in sea level that may submerge previous coasts or expose previous sea floor.
Primary Coasts
These owe their character and appearance to processes that occur at the land-air boundary.
Secondary Coasts
These owe their character and appearance to processes that are primarily of marine origin.
Onshore Current
The landward motion of water.
Onshore Transport
The delivery of sediments onto the land.
Longshore Current
The direction of the water at the angle hitting the beach within the surf-zone.
Longshore Transport
The delivery of sediments along the beach.
Swash
The up-rush of water from each breaking wave that moves sand particles diagonally up and along the beach in the direction of the longshore current.
Virus
Most abundant biological entity in seawater.
Holoplankton
Spend their entire lives as plankton.
Meroplankton
Spend only a portion of their lives as plankton.
Phytoplankton
Use solar energy to generate oxygen and the organic food that fuels most of the rest of the life in the sea. (Plants)
Zooplankton
Unicellular organisms.
Sargassum
Large planktonic seaweed.
Dinoflagellates
Single cells with both autotrophic and heterotrophic capabilities.
Spores
Reproductive cells released by some large seaweeds that drift in the plankton until they are consumed or settle out to grow attached to the sea bottom.
Gross Primary Production
Total amount of organic matter produced by photosynthesis per volume of seawater per unit of time.
Net Primary Production
Gain in organic matter from photosynthesis by phytoplankton minus the reduction in organic matter due to respiration by phytoplankton.
Pelagic Zone
Water Environment that is further divided into the coast (neritic) and oceanic zones.
Benthic Zone
Seafloor environment
Euphotic Zone
Area of the ocean where there is sufficient sunlight for growth of photosynthetic organisms.
Aphotic Zone
Area of the ocean where no light penetrates.
Biological Pump
The process of drawing CO₂ from the atmosphere into the ocean through the activity of biological processes.
Poikilotherms
Invertebrates and most fishes that have no means of metabolically regulating their body temperatures and instead rely solely upon heat conductance.
Homeotherms
Seabirds and mammals that can maintain a nearly constant body temperature.
Endotherms
Tunas and lamnid sharks that can maintain a higher temperature than the surrounding water, but do not have the same level of temperature control as homeotherms.
Epifauna
Benthic organisms that live on the surface. (Roughly 80% of all benthic organisms.)
Infauna
Benthic organisms that live within the sea floor. (Roughly 20% of all benthic organisms.)
Sessile
Does not move.
(barnacles, sea anenomones and oysters)
Motile
Moves.
(Crabs, starfish and snails)