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52 Cards in this Set

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What is nutrition?
The process by which food nourishes the body.
What are the three properties of essential nutrients?
1. When not present in a diet, certain body functions decline
2. When restored before permanent damage occurs, function returns.
3. The specific biological functions of the nutrient have been identified.
How do nutrients affect body function?
What are the six classes of nutrients?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
What are the three functional subcategories of nutrients?
1. Energy yielding (protein, carbohydrates, lipids)
2. Promote growth, development and maintenance (water, some vitamins and minerals, protein and lipids)
3. Regulate body processes (water, some vitamins and minerals, protein and lipids)
What functions do they serve?
What three elements are carbohydrates composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
What is the difference between a macronutrient and a micronutrient?
Macronutrients such as lipids and proteins are energy yielding. Micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins are not.
Which nutrient class is the major source of fuel for the body?
Carbohydrates
What are the two types of complex carbohydrates?
Starches and dietary fiber
What are the two types of carbohydrates?
Complex and simple sugars
What are the two types of simple sugars?
Monosaccharides like glucose and discaccharides like sucrose (table sugar).
How much energy do carbohydrates yield?
4 kcal per gram
Triglyceride is a major form of which nutrient class?
Lipids
What are lipids mainly composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen and little Oxygen
What is the basic unit of lipids?
Fatty acids
What are the two types of fatty acids?
1) Saturated fats have no double C-C bonds, allowing the molecules to pack together densely. For this reason, most saturated fats (which come mostly from animal fats) are solid at room temperature.
2) Essential fatty acids have double C-C bonds, creating a "kink" in the chain that prevents dense molecular packing and results in the fat being liquid at room temperature. Mono- and polyunsaturated fats fall into this category.
How much energy does fat yield?
9 kcal/gm
True or False:
Lipids dissolve in water
False
True or False:
The average American gets less than their recommended daily value of protein.
False: The average American gets 1.5-2x more than the recommendation.
What are proteins composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
What is the basic unit of a protein?
Amino acid
How many essential amino acids are there?
9
How many non-essential amino acids are there?
11
How much energy do vitamins yield?
None, they are a micronutrient.
What are the differences between fat- and water-soluble vitamins?
Water soluble vitamins (A and B) are easily excreted by the body (if there is an excess) and are destroyed by the cooking process. Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are not easily excreted and can become toxic if consumed in excess.
True or False:
Minerals are complex compounds
False: They are simple molecules of elements such as Na, K, and Cl. Carbon, however, is organic and therefore not a nutrient.
How much energy do minerals yield?
None, they are a micronutrient.
True or False:
Minerals are destroyed by cooking.
False
What are the five major functions of water in the body?
1. Solvent
2. Lubricant
3. Medium for transport
4. Aids in chemical processes
5. Temperature regulation
How much energy does water yield?
None, it is a micronutrient
What does a calorie represent?
"The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree Celsius."
What is a Kcal?
A kilocalorie or 1000 calories. It is the actual unit represented as "Calories" on a food label.
How much energy does alcohol yield?
7 kcal/gm
In the typical American diet, what percent of total kcals are proteins?
16%, 66% of which come from animal sources
In the typical American deit, what percent of total kcals are carbohydrates?
50%, 50% of which come from simple sugars
In the typical American diet, what percent of total kcals are lipids?
33%, 60% of which come from animal fats
When chemical bonds in food are broken down, energy is released. What are four things this energy is used for?
1) Build new muscle
2) Move muscles
3) Transmit nerve impulses
4) Maintain ion balance
What 4 vitamins and 5 minerals do Americans need more of in their diets?
Americans need more iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and fiber as well as B vitamins and vitamins C, D and E.
What FOUR nutrients should Americans consume less of?
Fat, calories, salt and alcohol
How many centimeters in an inch?
2.521
How many grams in an ounce?
28
How many lbs in a kilogram?
2.2
How many liters in a quart?
.946
What are the differences between hunger, appetite and satiety?
Hunger is the physical, biological drive to eat. Appetite is the psychological drive to eat. Satiety is a temporary halt in the desire to eat.
How does the hypothalamus contribute to satiety?
It contains the hunger and feeding centers of the brain, which send out different hormones depending on the presence of macronutrients.
Which three hormones are responsible for producing hunger?
1)Endorphins
2) Ghrelin
3) Neuropeptide Y
Which three hormones are responsible for producing satiety?
1) Leptin (w/ insulin)
2) Serotonin
3) Cholecystokinin (CCK)
What are the six diseases that are nutrition-related?
1) Heart Disease
2) Obesity
3) Hypertension
4) Osteoporosis
5) Cancer
6) Diabetes
What are the two functions of carbohydrates?
1) Energy yielding
2) Building blocks
What are the two functions of lipids?
1) Energy yielding
2) Essential fatty acids
What are the two functions of proteins?
1) Energy yielding
2) Building blocks for bones, muscles, blood cells, enzymes and immune factors
What is the function of vitamins?
Enable chemical reactions
What are the four functions of minerals?
1) Cellular process
2) Nervous system
3) Water balance
4) Structural systems