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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Complex Carbohydrates
-Long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber (polysaccharides)
-Includes starch, fiber, glycogen
Simple Carbphydrates
-glucose, fructose, sucrose, honey, corn syrup, HFCS
-Storage form of glucose
-Polysaccharide composed of glucose that is stored by liver and muscle tissues of humans and animals as a storage form of glucose
Dietary fiber
Substances that cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes but are somewhat vulnerable to breakdown by the enzymes of bacteria that reside in our digestive tract
Protein-Sparing Action
the action of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for purposes it alone can serve
the hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips
-A hormone secreted from the pancreas that regulates glucose entry into all tissues (primarily muscle, liver and adipose cells)
-regulates glucose metabolism
Name three main facts about glucose
1. Meets immediate energy needs
2. Stored in liver and muscles
3. Converts to fat
Glycemic Effect
A measure if the extent to which a food raises the blood-glucose levels as compared with pure glucose
A family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water.
1. tryglycerides
2. phospholipids
3. sterols
Essential Fatty Acids
Fats that the body needs but cannot make in sufficient amounts to meet needs
Refers to the number of hydrogens a fatty acid chain is holding
Clusters of lipids associated with protein, which serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph
Low-density lipoproteins
transport lipids from the liver to other tissues such as muscle and fat. They contain a laerge portion of protein
High-density lipoproteins
Critical for the process of carrying cholesterol from body cells to the liver for dismantling and disposal.
-contains large proportion of protein
The interaction of a compound with oxygen; in this case, a damaging effect by a chemically reactive form of oxygen
Dietary antioxidants
substances in good that sigificantly decrease the damaging effects of reactive compound, such as reactive forms of oxygen and nitrogen on tissue functioning
Elevated LDL
Cholesterol that forecasts heart disease and artery disease
Elevated HDL
Cholesterol with significantly lower disease risk
Trans-fatty acids
Fatty acids with unusual shapes that can arise when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated
Essential nutrient
1. Must be present in the body for normal bodily functioning
2. The body cannot produce sufficient quanitities
3. It must be consumed in the diet