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66 Cards in this Set

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Nutrients
energy
SIX kinds of nutrients
1. proteins
2. carbohydrates
3. fats
4. vitamins
5. minerals
6. water
Proteins
contain Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S)
Proteins
building blocks of amino acids (20)
essential amino acids
eight (8)
Proteins Purpose and examples
Purpose: replace and repair

Examples: eggs, milk, cheese, and meat
Carbohydrates
Organic nutrients because of C; contain C, H, O
Carbohydrates purpose and examples
purpose: main source of energy

examples: sugars, starches, and fibers
simple carbohydrates
sugar (fruit)
complex carbohydrates
starch (potatoes) and fiber (breads)
starches
made of many simple sugars
Fat
aka LIPIDS
fats purpose
provide energy and absorb vitamins
unsaturated fat
liquid at room temperature and good one
saturated fats
solid at room temperature and BAD one
"increases cholesterol"
Liver produces
cholesterol and bile
gallbladder
holds bile made by liver
where can you find cholesterol?
liver and bloodstream
Vitamins
organic nutrient needed for growth, regulating, and prevention
Water soluble
dissolve in water
vitamins B and C
fat soluble vitamins
disolve in fat
vitamins: A , D, E and K
Minerals
inorganic nutrients WHY? NO CARBON (C)
minerals purpose and examples
purpose: regulate chemical rxns

examples: Ca, Ph, KNa, FeI
(calcium, phosphorus, potassium sodium, and iron iodine)
Water
helps maintain cells
human body is __________ % of water
60
Food groups
same types of nutrients
bread and ceral group
6-11 servings
vegetable group
3-5 groups
fruit group
2-4 servings
milk group
2-3 servings
meat and bean group
2-3 servings
fats, oils, and sweets
very little amounts of intake
food labels
nutritional facts
calories are a measurment of
energy
Digestive system Functions
1. Ingestion
2. Digestion
3. Absorption
4. Excretion
Ingestion
to take food in
Digestion
to break food down
Absorption
absorbing food in body
Excretion
food released from the body
Two types of digestion
mechanical and chemical
Enzymes
breaks down or speeds up
a chemical reaction
AMYLASE
produced by glands also called
SALIVA
PEPSIN
in stomach
breaks down protein
PANCREAS
Releases ENZYMES into the
Small intestine
Major Organs of sigestive system
(in order)
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Rectum
Anus
Accessory Organs
Teeth
Tongue
Salivary Glands
Liver
Gall Bladder
Pancreas
produce and store enzymes.
pancreas, gall bladder and liver
Pharynx
throat
Esophagus
muscular tube for food
Peristalsis
muscular contractions that move food
in esophagus
is a strong Digestive Acid
(chemical produced by stomach)
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Chyme
liquid produced by the Stomach
Villi
increases surface area to absorb
more food
Large Intestine
where water is absorbed
Bacteria
Feed on undigested material, Makes GAS
Rectum
Holding area for feces
Anus
Where solid waste is released
Amylase
Breaks down carbohydrates in mouth
Small Intestine
abosorbs food
most digestion takes place in the
DUODENUM
Lactase
breaks down dairy products
stomach
chemical and mechanical digestion
bacteria found in the large intestine
E. Coli
codons in the DNA strand red for
AMino Acids
celluose in the plant cell walls is the reason you can't digest
FIBER
Anorexia
you don't eat
Bulemia
eat and vomit