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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chain of digestion
mastication (mouth), churning (stomach), duodenum-small intestine (absorbing), large intestine (extraction fluids and lytes)
Absorption in upper duodenum
choesterol, vitamin E, K, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamin
Absorption in lower duodenum and upper jejunum
glucose, amino acids, fats
Absorption in lower jejunum
sucrose, lactose
Absorption in large intestine
Primary fuel of metabolism
converts nutrients into usable substances
GI tract
transports nutrients to tissue via circulatory system.
BMR (basal metabolic rate)
energy needs at rest after waking
glucose stored as glucogon until needed
excess glucose is stored as fat
conversion of fat and amino acids to glucose when extra energy is required
Carbohydrate- components
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
starches and sugars
dextrose/glucose (fruit and veg), fructose (sweetest), galactose (breaksdown lactose, least sweet)
Simple sugar, C,H,O. Galactose, Fructose, Glucose,
Two-sugars, 2 saccharides bind by dehydration synthesis. Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose.
chains of sugars. starch and glycogen
Carbohydrate function
fuel, helps prevent ketones (develop from breakdown of protein). Enhance learning and memory
monoglyceride, diglyceride, triglyceride
single fatty acid joined to 1 glycerol molecule.
2 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol molecule
3 fatty acids joined to glycerol molecule
Saturated fats
fatty acid chain with single covalent bonds between C atoms. Solid at room temp.
Unsaturated Fats
fatty acid chain with one or more double bonds between C atoms. Liquid at room temp
Polyunsaturated fats
fatty acids that contain double bonds between carbon atoms.
Function of fats
fuel, used in vitamin absorption, insulation and protection
HDL- cholesterol
assists liver in removing LDL. Range 45-75
Increases buildup on arterial walls. <200
major risk factor for coronary artery disease, not a true fat (sterol)
similar in body to LDL
composed of C, H,O,N. most basic form is amino acid
Protein- functions
growth and maintenance.
building tissue
breaking down tissue
Positive nitrogen balance
needed for growth, pregnancy. More N consumed than excreted
Negative nitrogen balance
Found in illness, interruption in body integrity. More N secreted then consumed
Proteins functions
regulation of body processes, immunity, circulation, energy (last resort)
Complete protein
contains all 9 essential amino acids
Incomplete protein
lacking 1 or more essential amino acids
Vitamins- water soluble
not stored in body, daily intake needed. All B's vitamins and vitamin C
Vitamins - fat soluble
A, D, E, K, stored in body daily intake is not needed
Calcium- function
formation of bones and teeth, nerve transmission, coagulation, cardiac function
Calcium control mech
Parathyroid responds to low serum Ca by secreting PTH. Calcitonin is released by throid if Ca level too high.
Calcium deficiency problems
Osteoporosis, weak bones, poor coagulation (excessive bleeding) rickets, dental caries
Calcium Hypercalcemia
renal stones, cardiac arythmias, cardiac arrest, depressed brain function.
Ginseng - indications
Ginseng - contraindications
estrogen like effect, interacts with NSAIDS and anticoagulants
Echinacea- indications
improved immunity
Echinacea- contraindications
do not take for more than 8 weeks, decreases effect of steroids
Feverfew- indications
Feverfew- contraindications
Don't take with ASA, or anticoagulants, may cause GI ulcers
Ginko- indications
increased cerebral circulation and memory
Ginko- contraindications
Bleeding and GI distress can result, dont take with ASA and NSAIDS
Saw Palmetto- indications
urinary difficulty related to BPH (benign prostetic hypertrophy)
Saw palmetto- contraindications
can cause headaches
St. John's Wort- idications
anxiety and depression
St. John's Wort - contraindications
can cause increased sunburn, don't take with antidepressants, can cause GI interaction. Do not take with anticoagulants
Valerian- indications
sleep aid
Valerian- contraindications
Do not take with other sleep aids.
Glucosamine- indications
joint pain
Vitamin A- function
visual acuity, epithelial tissue health
Vitamin A- deficiency
night blindness, scaly skin, dry mucous membranes, decreased immune resistance
Vitamin A excess
nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hair loss, headache, carotenemia
Sources of Vitamin A
Milk, green leafy veg, yellow fruit and veg, eggs
Clear Liquid Diet
Easy to absorb, little residue, liquids must be clear. tea coffee, jello, broth, juices (clear)
Full liquid diet
anything that is pourable at room temperature. hot cereal, ice cream, custards, fruit juices. Dysphagia
Mechanical soft diet
similar to pureed but more whole foods that are easily chewed
Pureed diet
easily swallowed foods that do not require chewing. Gastric bypass, post op sometimes
Soft Foods diet
low in fibre, easy to digest
Sodium restrictions
4 gm. no added Na
2 gm. moderate salt
1 gm strict restriction
Enteral Nutrition
NG, Gastrostomy, Jejunostomy
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy
Checking for tube placement
xray, ph, insertion of air and auscultate. pH of 6-8 would indicate intestinal aspirate, 4-6 pH would indicate acid inhibition.
Types of feeding administration
continuous (and on pump), intermittent (delivered over 30 mins covers 4-6 hours of nutritional need) Bolus (4-6 hour need given in few minutes)
Types of tube feeds
blenderized food, milk based, lactose free (osmolyte, ensure), complete with protein, high calorie
Complications of tube feeding
tube irritation, occlusion, regurgitation, distention, diarrhea
Administering meds through feeding tubes
flush, check food/med compatibility, check crushing compatibility. Flush with water
Food drug interaction
lithium-changes the taste or smell, ASA & NSAIDS- GI discomfort, Laxatives and dilantin can interfere with absorption. Levodopa absorption is increased with carbs. Synthroid increases absorption,
Absorption ph considerations
acidic drugs absorbed in stomach, alkaline drugs absorbed in Small intestine.
Diet in renal disease
decrease potassium, sodium, fluids, protein. Increase phosphorous, Vitamin D, Calcium, iron.