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57 Cards in this Set

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Nutrition
sum of all interactions between an organism & the food it consumes
Nutrients
organic & inorganic substances found in foods & are required for body functioning
energy-providing nutrients
Carbs, fats, proteins
Carbs are composed of the elements:
carbon(C), hydrogen(H), oxygen(O)
Carbs are two basic kinds
simple (sugars)
complex (starches & fiber)
Sugars
-simplest of all carbs
-water soluble
-produced naturally by plants & animals
sugars may be:
monosaccharides (single molecule)
disaccharides (double molecule)
3 monosaccharides:
-glucose (most abbundant)
-fructose
-galctose
Starches:
-insoluble, nonsweet forms of carbs
-polysaccharide(branch chains of dozens of glucose molecules)
Fiber:
-complex carb derived from plants
-cannot be digested by humans
-present in outer layer of grains, bran, pulp of many fruits and vegs
Major enzymes of carb digestion:
-ptyalin (salivary amylase)
-pancreatic amylase
the disaccharides: maltase, sucrase & lactase
Enzymes
biologic catalysts that speed up chemical reations
Carbs are stored as:
-glycogen
-fat
Glycogen
large polymer of glucose
glycogenesis
glycogen formation
Protein
organic substance composed of amino acids
contains (C), (H), (O) and (N)
Essential amino acids
cannot be manufactured by the body
Nine essential amino acids
threonine, leucine, isoeucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine
Arginine
appears to have role in immune system
Nonessential amino acids
body can manufacture
Ten nonessential amino acids
glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, cystine, tyrosine, serine
Complete proteins
contain all essential amino acids include:
most animal-meats, poultry, fish, diary products & eggs
Incomplete proteins
lack one or more essential amino acis ( most commonly lysine, methionine or tryptophan)
Complementary proteins
combination of two of more vegetables make complete protein
Protein metabolism include thre activities
-anabolism(building tissue)
-catabolism(breking down tissue)
-nitrogen balance
Lipids
organic substances that are greasy & insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol or ether
Fats
lipids solid at room temp
Oils
lipids liquid at room temp
Fatty acids
made up of carbon chains & hydrogen and are basic structure unit of most lipids
Saturated fatty acids
carbon atoms are filled to capacity with hydrogen
Unsaturated fatty acid
could accomadate more hydrogen atoms. It has at least two carbon atoms that are not attached to a hydrogen atom
Monosaturated fatty acids
fatty acid with one double bond of carbon
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
more than one carbon double bond( or many carbons not bonded to a hydrogen atom)
Lipids are clssified as
simple and compound
Glycerides
simple lipid and most common form
Triglyceride
has 3 fatty acids, account for more than 90% of the lipids in food and in the body
Cholesterol
fatlike substance produced by both the body and found in foods of animal origin
Cholesterol is needed for
create bile acids and to synthesize steriod hormones
Lipoproteins
made up of various lipids and proteins
Vitamin
organic compound that cannot be manufactured by the body & is needed in small quanities to catalyze metabolic processes
Water-soluble vitamins
C,B-complex vitamins:B1(thiamine),B2(riboflavin), B3(Niacin), B6(pyridoxine, B9(floic acid, B12(cobalamin, pantothenic acid & biotin
Fat-soluble vitamins
A,D,E & K
Minerals
found in organic compound, as inorganic compounds, and as free ions
Calcium and phophorus make up
80% of all mineral elements in the body
Macrominerals-amount
those required daily by people in amounts over 100mg,
Macrominerals
calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, sulfur
Microminerals-amount
less than 100mg
Microminerals
iron, zinc, manganese, iodine, fluoride, copper, cobalt, chromium, selenium
Caloric value
amount of energy that nutrients or food supply to the body
Large calorie
amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 15 to 16 degrees Celsius
Energy liberated from metabolism
Carb- 4 cal
Protein- 4 cal
Fat- 9 cal
Alcohol- 7 cal
Metabolism
refders to all biochemical & physiologic processes by which the body grows and maintians itself
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
rate at which the body metabolizes food to maintian energy requirements of a person awake and at rest
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE)
amount of energy required to maintain basic body functions
Gallstones
can block flow of bile, common cause of lipid digestion
Diseases of the Pancreas
can affect glucose metabolism or fat digestion
Lactose intolerance
30 to 50 million Americans
75% of African Americans & American Indians
90% of Asian Americans