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102 Cards in this Set

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Healthy adults average caloric intake
2000-3000 is the normal range
Those in the United States at risk for an inadequate nutritional intake:
•Older adults living on fixed incomes
•Homeless people
•Children of economically deprived parents
•Pregnant teenagers
•People with substance abuse problems
•Clients with eating disorders
How many calories in Proteins?
Proteins yield 4 kcal/g
How many calories in carbohydrates?
carbohydrates yield 4 kcal/g
How many calories in fats?
fats yield 9 kcal/g
How many calories in Alcohol?
Alcohol yields 7 kcal/g
What protein components must come from food because the body cannot synthesize them?
essential amino acids
What protein components manufactured within the body?
Nonessential amino acids
What is protein's primary function?
build, maintain, and repair tissue (also very important for wound healing)
What are some Good sources of protein?
milk, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes (peas, beans, peanuts), nuts, and components of grains
What sources provide complete proteins (contain all the essential amino acids?
Animal sources
What sources contain incomplete proteins (contain only some essential amino acids)?
plant sources
What nutrients contain molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and are found generally in plant food sources?
Carbohydrates
What is the body's primary source for quick energy?
Carbohydrates
What is the undigestible fiber in the stems, skins, and leaves of fruits and vegetables, which forms intestinal bulk?
cellulose
What is important for promoting bowel elimination?
Fiber
Fat travels through the body by attaching to what?
lipoproteins
What is the concentrated energy source, supplying more than twice the calories per gram than either proteins or carbohydrates?
fat
good cholesterol
HDL
bad cholesterol
LDL
Solid fats
Saturated fats
fats liquid a room temperature
unsaturated fats
What vitamins (B complex, C) are eliminated with body fluids and so require daily replacement?
Water-soluble
What vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body as reserves for future needs.
Fat-soluble
What involves combining two or more incomplete plant proteins to provide all the essential amino acids present in animal protein sources?
Protein complementation
What lab tests show whether a patient is anemic?
hemoglobin and hemocrit
What body change is associated with a higher incidence of heart and vascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus?
An increased proportion of abdominal fat
What should a Vegan take every day?
a calcium supplement that supplies at least 800 mg per day
What is it called when you are feeling faint or weak, dizziness, perspiration, skin pallor, rapid pulse rate and headache?
Nausea
What is anorexia?
loss of appetite
Older adults get diminished senses of smell and taste because...
taste buds atrophy
What is the fluid inside cells?
Intracellular fluid
What is the fluid outside cells?
extracellular fluid
What is the fluid in the tissue space between and around cells?
interstitial fluid
What is the watery plasma, or serum, portion of blood?
intravascular fluid
What are the chemical compounds, such as sodium and chloride, that are dissolved, absorbed, and distributed in body fluid and possess an electrical charge?
Electrolytes
Significant electrolyte imbalances can lead to dangerous physiologic problems and changes in fluid volumes. What is one possible problem and its solution?
Dehydration - give IV fluids
Movement of intravascular fluid to nonvascular fluid compartments where it becomes trapped and useless.
Third-spacing
What is another name for red blood cells
erythrocytes
What is another name for white blood cells
leukocytes
What is another name for platelets
thrombocytes
What has most of the plasma removed and are preferred for clients who need cellular replacement but don't need additional fluid
packed cells
What are the most common colliod solutions?
Whole Blood and Packed Cells
When does a serious transfusion reaction occur?
usually 5 to 15 minutes of the infusion
What is the process in which certain dissolved substances require the assistance of a carrier molecule to pass from one side of a semipermeable membrane to the other
Facilitated diffusion
What is the process of chemical distribution that requires an energy source, involves a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Active transport
In healthy adults, fluid intake generally averages approximately _____ mL per day, but it can range from _____ to _____ mL per day with a similar volume of fluid loss
2,500 mL per day

1,800 to 3,000 mL per day
What are the fluid losses that are unnoticeable and unmeasurable called?
insensible losses
Where is the fluid that is called insensible losses lost?
1) (skin) from the skin in areas other than where sweat glands are located
2) (lungs) from the vapor in exhaled air
What develops when excess fluid is distributed to the interstitial space
Edema
What is a fluid deficit in both extracellular and intracellular compartments
dehydration
Why are Intravenous (IV) fluids are solutions infused into a client's vein?
• Maintain or restore fluid balance
• Maintain or replace electrolytes
• Administer water-soluble vitamins
• Provide a source of calories
• Administer drugs
• Replace blood and blood products.
What are the two types of IV solutions?
crystalloid and colloid
What solutions are made of water and other uniformly dissolved crystals such as salt and sugar
Crystalloid
What solutions are made of water and molecules of suspended substances such as blood cells and blood products
Colloid
An ______ solution contains the same concentration of dissolved substances normally found in plasma
isotonic
A ______ solution contains fewer dissolved substances than normally found in plasma. (i.e. swells the cells like a "O")
hypotonic
A ______ solution is more concentrated than body fluid and draws cellular and interstitial water into the intravascular compartment. (i.e. shrivels the cells)
hypertonic
Why would you administer a IV with isotonic solution to a patient?
add Fluid Volume
Why would you administer a IV with hypotonic solution to a patient?
to rehydrate clients with fluid deficits
Why would you administer a IV with hypertonic solution to a patient?
not used often except to reduce cerebral edema or to expand the circulatory volume rapidly
Why would you administer Colloid Solutions?
unexpected bleeding
What should you remember about selecting a venipuncture site?
Use veins on the nondominent site or look for a large vein, in a large-guage needle or catheter
______ ____ have most of the plasma removed and are preferred for clients who need cellular replacement but do not need, or may be harmed by, the administration of additional fluid.
Packed cells
Shape: Disk-shaped cellular fragments that promote coagulation of blood

Purpose: Restores or improves the ability to control bleeding
Platelets
Shape: Types of white blood cells

Purpose: Improves the ability to overcome infection
Granulocytes
Shape: Serum minus blood cells

Purpose: Replaces clotting factors or increases intravascular fluid volume by increasing colloidal osmotic pressure
Plasma
Shape: Plasma protein

Purpose: Pulls third-spaced fluid by increasing colloidal osmotic pressure
Albumin
Shape: Mixture of clotting factors


Purpose: Treats blood clotting disorders such as hemophilia
Cryoprecipitate
What is the most important factor affecting gravity infusions?
The height of the IV solution rather than the tubing
In gravity infusions where to you place it to overcome the pressure within the client's vein?
The solution must be elevated at least 18 to 24 inches (45 to 60 cm) above the site of the infusion
How do you select a Venipuncture Site?
Don't use veins: on nondominant side, on foot & leg or on side of previous breast or vascular surgery, or if inflamed or impaired •Choose: location unaffected by joint movement, large vein, proximal to current site or in opposite hand or arm, fairly straight • Avoid veins on the inner wrist
What type blood is considered the universal donor because it lacks both A and B blood group markers on its cell membrane?
type O blood
What type blood is referred to as universal recipients because their red blood cells have proteins compatible with types A, B, and O?
type AB blood
Rh-positive persons may receive _______ or _______ blood because the latter does not contain the sensitizing protein.
Rh-positive or Rh-negative
Rh-negative persons, however, should never receive _______ blood.
Rh-positive
Blood is generally is infused through a _______ —preferably an _______
16- to 20-gauge

18-gauge
What is the outermost layer of skin?

(contains dead skin cells that form a tough protein called keratin)
epidermis layer
What is the true skin layer of skin?

(contains most of the secretory glands)
dermis layer
What layer of the skin separates the skin from skeletal muscles?

(contains fat cells, blood vessels, nerves, and the roots of hair follicles and glands)
subcutaneous layer
What are the benefits of Bathing?
• Eliminating body odor
• Reducing the potential for infection
• Stimulating circulation
• Providing a refreshed and relaxed feeling
• Improving self-image
Where do you wash when you give a partial bath?
the face, hands, axillae, and perineal area
What are some contraindications of shaving?
If patient is on Blood Thinners, thrombalytics, high aspirin dose, or have hemophilia or other blood diseases - use an electric razor only
What is the chief component of most diets?
Carbohydrates
Name some unsaturated fats that come from plant sources
corn, safflower, olives, peanuts, and soybeans
Name some common hospital diets:
Regular
Soft
Mechanical
Full liquid
Clear liquid
What is in a Regular Hospital Diet?
allows unrestricted food selections
What is in a Soft Hospital Diet?
contains foods soft in texture, readily digestible, few or no spices, fewer fruits and vegetables
What is in a Mechanical Soft Hospital Diet?
resembles a light diet but is used for clients with chewing difficulty, cooked fruits, vegetables, and ground meats
What is in a Full Liquid Hospital Diet?
contains fruit and vegetable juices, creamed soups, milk, ices, ice cream, gelatin, custards and cooked cereals
What is in a Clear Liquid Hospital Diet?
water, clear broth, clear fruit juice, plain gelatin, tea, coffee, and may or may not include carbonated beverages
What is loss of stomach contents through the mouth?
Vomiting
What is the substance that is vomited?
Emesis
What is it when one brings the stomach contents to the throat and mouth without the effort of vomiting?
Regurgitation
Vomiting that occurs with great force
Projectile vomiting
What is in a Clear Liquid Hospital Diet?
water, clear broth, clear fruit juice, plain gelatin, tea, coffee, and may or may not include carbonated beverages
What is loss of stomach contents through the mouth?
Vomiting
What is the substance that is vomited?
Emesis
What is it when one brings the stomach contents to the throat and mouth without the effort of vomiting?
Regurgitation
Vomiting that occurs with great force
Projectile vomiting
When you feed a client with Dysphagia...
You should have equipment for oral and pharyngeal suctioning at the bedside
When you feed a client that is Visually Inpaired...
Use the clock analogy and tell them what type of food your feeding them