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21 Cards in this Set

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Temperature of bowls and beaters when making whipped toppings
118 ml whipping cream 10 C

whipped milk: low temperature
whipped egg: room temperature
Temperature that milk scalds
85 C or 185F
Qualities of a finished egg foam (i.e. peaks)
soft: droop over quickly
stiff: maintain triangular structure (foam is done)
Factors that increase the stability of whipped milk products
high fat, low temperature, increased age, sugar, whipping time
Solubility of chlorophyll pigment
fat soluble, not as soluble as carotenoids
Examples of vegetables with chlorophyll pigments
lettuce, spinach, kale
Definition of enzymatic browning and ways to prevent it from occurring
enzymes react with oxygen to form brown pigment
inhibit enzymes by: denature by blanching, lower ph using acids, cold temp,

reduce exposure to oxygen, use antioxidant
Definition of syrup- and fat-phase candies
syrup phase: boiled sugar and water
fat phase: chocolate and nut pastes
Differences between crystalline and non-crystalline candy
crystalline: sugar solution with small fine crystals, soft, smooth, creamy:

fudge, fondant, divinity, large crystals create grainy texture: rock candy

rapid cooling and beating
noncrystalline: sugar solutions that did not crystallize: caramel, lollipop, gummy,

inhibit crystal formation by interfering agents
Appropriate cuts of beef for moist and dry preparation
moist heat: less tender cut
dry heat: tender cuts: roast, baking, broiling, grilling,
Examples of tender, less and least tender beef cuts
tender: ribs, short loin, sirloin
less tender: chuck, round
least tender: flank, brisket, fore shank, short plate
Recommended temperature for cooked beef
77 C, 170 F
Microwaving and meat products
fast, dry and tasteless, dull color, greater cooking loss
Label the 9 beef cuts
tender cuts: rib, short loin, sirloin
less tender: chuck, round
least tender: flank, short plate, brisket, fore shank
Examples of lean beef cuts
round tip, top round, eye of round, top loin, tenderloin, sirloin,
Proper way to make fish steaks and fillets
fish steak: slice from top to bottom at 90 degree angle
fillet: slice fish lengthwise from front to back to avoid bones
Functions of gelatin
increase viscosity (main), stabilizer, setting agent
Proper environment for setting gelatin
cooler the environment, faster gel sets
amount gelatin to set a gel is 1-2%
7g gelatin for 474 mL liquid
3 methods of soaking beans
1. overnight soak: beans rinsed, soaked for ten hours, simmered until tender
2. short soak: beans to full boil for two minutes, let it soak for an hour
3. no soak: twice the cooking time and double the water. loses skins easily. ok for

lentils and split peas because they are small
Rehydration of textured vegetable protein
1 cup should be rehydrated to ½ cup of water
Amount of dried legumes needed to make 2 ½ cup or 1 ¼ cup of cooked legumes
100g dried legumes= 1 ¼ cups of cooked legumes
1 lb dried legumes = 2 ½ cups cooked legumes