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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How far down does DLF extend?
(dorsal longitudinal fasciculus)
How far down does DLF extend?
(dorsal longitudinal fasciculus)

Only to the brainstem
What is DLF thought to be involved in?
Regulation of cranial parasumpathetic neurons
How far down does the MFB project?
(Medial forebrain bundle)

Down to sacral spinal cord
What, generally, does the MFB influence?
In the spinal cord, it influences both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system by terminating on preganglionic neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord.
Can you see the MFB distinctly in the anatomical sections?
Where is the MFB in the brainstem?
Dorsolateral position in the tegmentum in the brainstem
Where is MFB in the spinal cord?
It overlaps the region of the corticospinal tract in the dorsolateral funiculus
What does horner's syndrome include?
Pupillary constriction
Ptosis of eyelid
Decreased sweating (anhydrosus)
What happens if you interrupt the MFB at, say, the cervical spinal cord level?
Impair control of symp neurons below level of lesion.

This results in a horner's syndrome

(Oddly, sacral parasympathetic functionsbelow level of lesion are relatively unaffected, probably due to bilateral MFB input to parasymp preganglionic neurons)
Describe how descending pathways can ihibit ascending nociceptive signals?
1) descending paths originating in cortex project to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY
2) this projects to the RETICULAR FORMATION and the RAPHE NUCLEI of th emedulla.
3) These targes send their axons to trigem nuclei and the dorsal horn of the cord to inhibit neurons transmitting nociceptive info
What Neurotransmitter do reticular formation neurons use?
What Neurotransmitter do neurons of the raphe nuclei use?
What happens to descending tracts if you lose anterior spinal artery at cord level?
1) ipsilateral loss of voluntary motor control below the lesion (CST)
2) disruption of spinal reflexes AT THE LEVEL of the lesion
What descending tracts do you lose with anterior spinal artery loss at level of of caudal medulla?
1) loss of volontary motor control below the lestion, bilateral or unilateral (?)
What descending tracts do you lose with brown-sequard syndrome?
1) ipsoilateral loss of voluntary movement below lesion (CST; RST if cervical)
What descending tracts do you lose with medial pointine syndrome?
1) contralateral loss of voluntary movement of body below the lesion (CST)

2) ipsilateral paralysis of face (facial nerve)
What descending control do you lose with lateral pontine syndrome?
1) ipsilateral loss of voluntary movement of upper and lower face
What descending control do you lose with middle cerebral artery occlusion at posterior limb of internal capsule?
1) contralateral loss of voluntary body movement
2) contralateral loss of voluntary movement of LOWER face
Where is the red nucleus?
what does rubrospinal tract run alongside/with
axons from lateral corticospinal tract
What is rubrospinal tract mainly involved wiht
distal arm motor function
If you could injure ONLY the rubrospinal tract somehow, would you get a clinical manisfestation?
probably not. seems to be fairly redundant.
Where does rubrospinal tract decussate?
Pretty musch right at level of red nucleus in midbrain.
Where is position of rubrospinal tract in the spinal cord?
Lateral...pretty much with the LCST.
Where does tectospinal tract originate?
also midbrain (like rubrospinal, I think)
When does tectospinal tract decussate
Pretty much immediately
Where does tectospinal tract run in the spinal cord
Down ventrally with the VSCT
Where does rubrospinal tract end?
cervical cord
Where does tectospinal tract end?
cervical cord
Where is rubrospinal tract in the cord in relation to LCST?
Just ventral to it
Where can you see dorsal longitudinal funiculus?
On surfaces of the bumps in dorsal surface of mid medulla section
Where does caudal extension of median forebrain bundle run?
Runs indistincly near the spinolthalamic tract
What does caudal extension of the medial forebrain bundle carry?
1) sympathetic control fibers
2) parasymp control fibers to sacral cord
What syndrome does PICA occlusion cause?
Lateral medullary syndrome
What are the sensosry and motor deficits of Lateral Medullary syndrome?

1) DC/ML is spared--it is medial here
2) contralateral loss of pain and temp sensation in body (hit the spinothalamic tract
3) Spinal trigem tract/nucleus is hit. IPSILATERAL loss of sensation in face PAIN AND TEMP.
4) Chief nucleus of trigem is in pons, so OK here.

1) Corticspinal: ventral/medial and covered by paramedian of basilar. OK.
2) Corticobulbar: bilateral inneraation to most, so OK. Below facial nucleus, so OK for voluntary face movements.

BUT: takes out MBF (runs near ST, which is taken out laterally.) So IPSILATERAL HORNERS.
Unliateral lesion of Internal capsule (MCA?)--motor and sensory defects
1) contralateral loss of pain, temp, vibr, fine touch, proprioception in body and face

2) MOTOR: contralateral loss of voluntary movement EXCEPT upper face, which is bilaterally innervated by corticobulbar tracts.
Where is abducens nucleus?
Midline, pons
Where is facial nucleus
Pons, In ventral AICA section, not medial but not lateral.