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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The most notable differences in spinal cord occur in cervical and lumbar regions and are related to innervation of limbs - these ovoid regions are called _
Cervical and lumbar enlargements
Posterior roots are carrying _ information
afferent - GSA and GVA
All primary afferents must have cell bodies in _
Spinal cord tapers to a point - this is _ - this marks the end of nervous tissue - found at the level of _
Conus medullaris
Extending from the end of spinal cord is modified strand of pia mater called _ - serves to anchor spinal cord within dural sac
Filum terminale
On the posterior aspect of spinal cord three deep grooves can be identified - they are _
Posterior median sulcus
Posterior intermediate sulcus
Dorsolateral sulcus
There is only one _ and it is located in midline of spinal cord
Posterior median sulcus
On either side of posterior median sulcus there is _ and further lateral _
Posterior intermediate
On the anterior aspect of spinal cord there is a deep groove situated in midline - _
Anterior median fissure
On either side of anterior median fissure there is longitudinal column known as _
Anterior funiculus
Medulla oblongata begins just rostral to _ at the level of _
Spinal cord
Foramen magnum
In caudal medulla it is difficult to observe anterior median fissure, this is the result of _ - major site of descending motor axons crossing the midline
Pyramidal decussation
On either side of anterior median fissure in medulla there are large bundle of axons called _
Pyramids (almost pyramidal in shape on cross section)
An important structure emerges from medulla between pyramid and olive - this is _
This region is called _
Preolivary fissure
Just behind olive there is deep groove called _ - within this groove two CN's emerge - they are _
Postolivary fissure
CN's IX and X
Posterior aspect of medulla is almost entirely covered by _
Removal of cerebellum reveals large diamond shaped depression called _
Rhomboid fossa
When you remove cerebellum and look at rhomboid fossa in reality you look at _
Floor of 4th ventricle
Roof of 4th ventricle is formed largely by _
Cerebellum is attached to brainstem by _
Cerebellar peduncles
Rhomboid fossa is wide and them comes to point - this point is _ - this is the caudal limit of 4th ventricle
In medulla posterior median fissure separates right and left dorsal columns called _
Which one is more medial?
Fasciculus cuneatus
Fasciculus gracilis
Fasciculus gracilis is more medial, fasciculus cuneatus is immediately lateral to it
As two posterior columns come to obex they are capped by two small bumps - one associated with each fasciculus, these are called _
Gracile and cuneate tubercles
Posterior columns and associated tubercles are involved in relay of _ information from body
Associated with spinal cord and by proximity the medulla is CN _
It arises from _ - ascends upward through _ and jons glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to leave skull via _
XI (spinal accessory)
Upper cervical spinal cord
Foramen magnum
Jugular foramen
Anterior aspect of this structure is rounded and looks like wallnut
Posterior part of pons is called _ - it refers to core of brainstem and extends from medulla to midbrain and into diencephalon
Anterior wallnut portion of pons is called _
Basilar pons
At the junction of medulla and pons just off midline you can find CN _
VI (abducens)
If you move laterally from CN VI you encounter two more CN's at pons-medullary junction- these are _
This structure emerges from lateral recess of 4th ventricle and is responsible for making CSF
Choroid plexus
Large nerve emerging from basilar pons slightly more rostral to middle cerebellar peduncle is _
Most prominent and important structure at posterior pons is _
Facial colliculus
Facial colliculus is an area where SVE portion of CN VII is in close proximity with _
GSE fibers of CN VI
Cerebellum can be roughly broken into median portion _and two _ on either side of it
Lateral hemispheres
Most inferior part of each lateral hemisphere of cerebellum is called _
Both tonsils of cerebellum are in close proximity with _ what is clinical significance of this
Posterior aspect of medulla
Clinical siginificance -raising intracranial pressure in posterior cranial fossa will press tonsils on medulla which can compress cardiac and respiratory centers that reside within medulla leading to death - this is called TONSILLAR HERNIATION
Directly below middle cerebellar peduncle at the apex of lateral recess is _
Most inferior and anterior of lobules of vermis is called _ and forms part of roof of 4th ventricle overlying medulla
When vermis is sectioned in saggital plane the organization of white and gray matter of cerebellum appear to form a tree - this is called _
Arbor vitae (tree of life)
Most prominent feature of anterior aspect of midbrain are _ - carry information from cerebral cortex to brainstem, spinal cord and cerebellum
Crus cerebri (cerebral peduncles)
CN _ exits anterior aspect of midbrain between crus cerebri. This space is called _
Interpeduncular fossa
Posterior aspect of midbrain presents four large bumps stacked two on top of two - these collectively are known as _ and correspond to _
Corpora quadrigemina
Superior and inferior colliculi
Extending from inferior colliculus toward diencephalon (and connecting these structures) is _
Brachium of inferior colliculus
Posterior aspect of midbrain presents exit for CN _
IV (trochlear)
Only CN that exits from posterior aspect of brainstem
Most caudal parts of midbrain are connected to cerebellum by way of superior cerebellar peduncle and thin sheet of tissue called _
Anterior medullary velum
Colliculi of the midbrain together are called _
Just underneath tectum of midbrain there is ventricular space called _ - very thin, narrow part of ventricular system and common site of blockage
Cerebral aqueduct
Diencephalon consists of 4 parts - those are _
Pineal gland and habenula are part of _
This region is transitional area between midbrain and thalamus and contains number of structures related to brainstem and forebrain function
Largest part of diencephalon - egg shaped and for most part hidden by cerebral cortex
Most posterior aspect of thalamus projects posteriorly and is known as _
Just inferior to pulvinar of thalamus are two bumps that are side by side and are called _
Medial and lateral geniculate bodies
Bundle of fibers that serves to connect the left and right thlami are called
Mass intermedia
Thalamus extends anteriorly to _ and inferiorly to _
Interventricular foramen
Hypothalamic sulcus
Landmark to distinguish thalamus from hypothalamus
Hypothalamic sulcus
At the inferior surface of whole brain between crus cerebri you find two bumps, those are _
Mammilary bodies
CN _ is closely related to hypothalamus
Optic nerve is an outgrowth of _
As optic nerve approaches hypothalamus there is crossing of some fibers within nerve - this is the _
Optic chiasm
Posterior to the optic chiasm optic nerve extends to _ and this part of CN is knows as _
Lateral geniculate body
Optic tract
On anterior aspect of diencephalon small stalk like structure is called _
Infundibulum is connected to hypothalamus and is continuous inferiorly with _
Hypophysis (pituitary gland)
6 lobes of cerebral cortex
_ divides cerebral cortex into right and left hemispheres
Longitudinal sulcus (fissure)
Extending laterally from central sulcus on each side is prominent sulcus _
Central sulcus
_ sulcus is boundary between frontal and parietal lobes
Central sulcus
Central sulcus extends laterally and inferiorly to meet with another sulcus _
Lateral sulcus
_ sulcus separates frontal lobe from temporal lobe and parietal lobe from temporal lobe
If lateral sulcus is opened, you can find another deep lobe of cortex - _
Insular lobe
Moving posteriorly along surface of longitudinal sulcus you will encounter another prominent sulcus _ - separates parietal from occipital lobes
Parieto-occipital sulcus
Moving down to temporal lobe and again passing backwards one will encounter a shallow notch _ - separates temporal lobe from occipital lobe
Preoccipital notch
Limbic lobe consists of _
Cingulate gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus
Most prominent feature of telencephalon is large band of fibers that serves to connect right and left hemispheres -
Corpus callosum
Corpus callosum consists of _
Makes C shaped loop that surrounds corpus callosum
Limbic lobe
Gyrus in front of central sulcus is called _
Precentral gyrus
Precentral gyrus is responsible for _
Primary motor cortex
Gyrus posterior to central sulcus is called _
Postcentral gyrus is responsible for _
Primary somatosensory cortex
Inferior bank of lateral sulcus contains _
Primary auditory cortex
If you follow lateral sulcus posteriorly until you can go no further you encounter _
Supramarginal gyrus
_ gyrus is encountered just behind supramarginal gyrus
Angular gyrus
Supramarginal and angular gyri are co-extensive with _
Wernickes receptive speech area
Frontal lobe consists of three gyri stacked on top of another - _
Superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri
Inferior frontal gyrus has three parts -
_ - most anterior
_ apex points down
Pars orbitalis
Pars triangularis
Pars opercularis
Inferior frontal gyrus corresponds to _ area
Brocas motor speech area
Temporal lobe consists of three gyri -
Superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri
The inferior temporal gyrus is adjacent (lateral) to _ which is in turn lateral to _
Occipitotemporal gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus
At the most rostral end of parahippocampal gyrus is small protrusion that extends towards midbrain - this extension is called _
Location of primary visual cortex
Calcarine sulcus within occipital lobe
_ gyrus that extends over corpus callosum and contributes to limbic lobe of cerebral cortex
Cingulated gyrus
On anterior surface of cerebral cortex you can observe _ CN
I - olfactory
This lamina has tightly packed cells and corresponds to SUBSTANTIA GELATINOSA found at all spinal cord levels
This lamina extend across gray-H and includes posterior nucleus of CLarke, IML and sacral autonomic nuclei
Lamina VII
Funiculus vs fasciculus
Funiculus contains numerous bundles of axons arising from different places
Fasciculus contains bundle of axons all arising from same place
This level of spinal cord is round in cross section, has relatively thick gray-H and relatively sparse white matter
This level of spinal cord is round in shape, gray-H is relatively large, posterior and anterior horns are enlarged for limbs and white matter is beginning to thicken
The overal shape of spinal cord at this level is round although it has smaller diameter then lumbar. Gray H is thin and narrow
IML contains _ neurons
Preganglionic sympathetic
Round and prominent group of neurons within central regions of gray matter in thoracic level of spinal cord _ - relay _ information from lower limb to cerebellum
Posterior nucleus of Clarke
This level of spinal cord on cross section is oval in shape, gray H is large especially anterior horns, funiculi are large
Accessory nucleus is at _ level of spinal cord
Present in brainstem is diffuse region composed of neuronal cell bodies as well as bundles of axons. This regions is called _ Generally when you have identified all nuclei and major fiber tracts everything left over is this
Reticular formation
Most caudal section of medulla is at the level of _
Decussation of pyramids
Large X shaped region at the anterior aspect of medulla
Decussation of pyramids
At the level of decussation of pyramids there is a column of gray matter that is directly continuous with substantia gelatinosa of spinal cord, however in medulla this is called _
Spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract
Region of gray matter called _ surrounds central canal of CNS
Central gray
Caudal to middle section through the medulla (decussation of posterior columns) contains large prominent accumulation of crumpled gray matter ("squiggly") that is called _
After posterior columns fibers reach termination and synapse in posterior column nuclei (cuneatus and gracilis), fibers cross midline and become known as _
_ nuclei occupy region at the floor of fourth ventricle near midline but extend laterally
_ nuclei extend laterally from the floor of fourth ventricle much like pair of doggy ears
Cochlear nuclei
Both vestibular and cochlear nuclei associated with CN _
Just anterior to central gray and immediately off midline at the level of rostral medulla (4th ventricle and cochlear nucleus) you see _ nucleus, just lateral to it is _ nucleus and further lateral is _ nucleus
Dorsal vagal
Nucleus that is located anterior to solitary nucleus and is difficult to localize
Nucleus ambiguous
_ is situated laterally under the floor of 4th ventricle and consists of axons entering and leaving cerebellum and will contribute to formation of inferior cerebellar peduncle
Restiform body
Region of gray matter that is located antero-medial to facial nucleus _ - an auditory relay center
Superior olivary complex
Fibers from facial nucleus run posteriorly over _ nucleus forming _ and the anteriorly where they exit brainstem
Abducens nucleus
Genu of facial nerve
Spot where facial nucleus fibers cross over abducens nucleus can be observed along floor of 4th ventricle - this is _
Facial colliculus
Trigeminal motor nucleus contains _ neurons of CN V
Near the lateral wall of 4th ventricle you can see 2 nuclear groups - _ nucleus that looks like bandit mask and nucleus _ - NE secreting neurons
Mesencephalic nucleus
Nucleus ceruleus
Progression fro 4th ventricle to cerebral aqueduct occurs at level of _
Rostral pons
If you see axons leaving posterior aspect of brainstem - those are fibers of _
Section through midbrain at the level of trochlear nucleus will include _ situated posteriorly
Inferior colliculi
_ nucleus is situated anterior to central gray surrounding cerebral aqueduct in the midbrain
AT the level of midbrain central gray is much expanded and is called _
Periaqueductal gray
A section through occulomotor nucleus will also section _
Superior colliculi
Situated immediately postero-medial to occulomotor nucleus is pale area that corresponds to _
Edinger - Westphal nucleus
Two large projections from midbrain that look like legs are _
Crus cerebri
Deep within crus cerebri there is large pale staining region called _ - contains dark pigment - neuromelanin
Substantia nigra
Back end of thalamus is called _
Just inferior to pulvinar there are two major sensory relay centers - visual and auditory _
Medial and lateral geniculate bodies
Pineal gland and posterior commissure are structures of _
Lateral to internal capsule is _
Just lateral to putamen there is thin band of white matter called _
External capsule
External capsule is adjacent to clump of gray matter called _
Lateral to claustrum is _
Extreme capsule
Just inferior to internal capsule there is an important gray mass _
Nucleus accumbens
Medial to internal capsule is _
Head of caudate nucleus
Located within lateral wall of each lateral ventricle
Caudate nucleus
Two lateral ventricles are separated by narrow sheet of tissue called _
Septum pellucidum
Just superior to ventricular system there is large dense bundle of white matter called _
Corpus callosum
Dense band of axons that are crossing midline just near anterior aspect of telencephalon is called _ and serves to connect right and left cortices
Anterior commissure
At the level of anterior commissure septum pellucidum contains fiber tract called _
Situated between putamen and internal capsule is _
GLobus pallidus
Just anterior to globus pallidus there is gray matter clump called _
Basal nucleus of Meynert
When you make section through interventricular foramen it passes through anterior temporal lobe and reveals large well developed mass of gray matter called _
Amygdaloid complex
Fornix arises from _
Fornix can be identified at two different regions _
Septum pellucidum and hippocampus