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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 major structures of the brain
cerebral hemispheres; cerebellum; caudal portion of the brainstem
gyri
ridges between convoluted surfaces of the brain
sulci
valleys between convoluted surfaces of the brain
fissures
esp. deep valleys between convoluted surfaces of the brain
cerebral cortex
thin layer of neural tissue - covers entire cerebrum

convoluted surface of the cerebral hemispheres; composed of continous, layered, laminated sheet of neurons and supporting cells
lobes of the cerebral hemisphere
frontal parietal occipital temporal
central sulcus
valley that separates the anterior lobe of the cerebral hemisphere from the parietal lobe
What is the importance of the precentral gyrus?
area of the anterior lobe - its cortex is the motor cortex and contains neurons whose axons project to motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord that innervate skeletal muscles
motor cortex
the cortex of the precentral gyrus of the anterior lobe of the cerebral hemisphere. it contains neurons whose axons project to motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord that innervate skeletal muscles
lateral (Sylvian) fissure
separates anterior lobe of the cerebral hemisphere from the temporal lobe
insular cortex
of the insula between the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral hemisphere - visceral and autonomic function, including taste
What is the importance of the postcentral gyrus?
found in parietal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere - cortex is concerned with somatic sensation (somatic sensory cortex)
somatic sensory cortex
of the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere - concerned with somatic sensation
occipital lobe
of the cerebral hemisphere - vision
frontal lobe
of the cerebral hemisphere - plans responses to stimuli
parietal lobe
of the cerebral hemisphere - attends to stimuli
temporal lobe
of the cerebral hemisphere - recognizes stimuli
corpus callosum
tract of axons that bridges the two cerebral hemispheres. contains axons that originate from neurons in one hemisphere that contact target neurons in the other hemisphere
hippocampus
memory
uncus
structure that contains the pyriform cortex
pyriform cortex
contained in the uncus; processes olfactory information
cerebral peduncles
two large tracts posterior to the hypothalamus; contain axons that project to the motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord
parieto-occipital sulcus
valley that separates the pareital lobe of the cerebral hemisphere from the occipital
calcarine sulcus
valley that divides the medial surface of the occipital lobe of the cerebral hemisphere
marks the location of the primary visual cortex
cingulate sulcus
valley that extends across the medial surface of the frontal and parietal lobes
cingulate gyrus
ridge that is below the cingulate sulcus - limbic lobe
limbic system
limbic lobe wraps around the corpus callosum
cingulate gyrus + its associated cortex
regulates visceral motor activity
regulates emotional expression
dorsal thalamus
relays info from cerebral cortex to other parts of brain
largest component of diencephalon - many subdivisions
hypothalamus
control of homeostatic and reproductive functions
part of diencephalon
closely related to pituitary gland
infundibulum
= pituitary stalk
attaches pituitary gland to hypothalamus
what are the functions of neuroglial cells?
1. maintain ionic milieu
2. modulate rate of nerve signal propagation
3. control neurotransmitter uptake to modulate synaptic action
4. provide scaffold for neural dvpt
5. aid (or prevent) recovery from neural injury

do NOT directly participate in synaptic interactions or electrical signaling
synaptic transmission
process by which information encoded by action potentials is passed on to the next cell in the pathway (passed on at synaptic contacts)
dendrites
major sites for synaptic terminals
synaptic vesicles
secretory organelles filled with molecules of neurotransmitter - located in the presynaptic terminals
what are the types of neuroglial cells?
1. astrocytes
2. oligodendrocytes
3. Schwann cells
4. microglial cells
astrocyte
neuroglial cell found only in CNS - maintains chemical envt appropriate for neural signaling
oligodendrocyte
neuroglial cell found only in CNS - elaborates myelin
Schwann cell
neuroglial cell found only in PNS - elaborates myelin
microglial cell
neuroglial cell found only in CNS - scavenger cell that removes cellular debris found at site of injury or normal cell turnover
circuit
organization of neurons that processes specific kinds of information
neutropil
region between cell bodies where most synaptic connectivity occurs

consists of dendrites, axon terminals, and glial cell processes
interneurons
local neurons
have short axons
participate only in local aspects of a circuit
knee-jerk reflex
myotactic spinal reflex
extracellular recording
place electrode near neuron to detect action potential
intracellular recording
place electrode in neuron to detect smaller graded potentials that trigger action potentials (receptor potentials and synaptic potentials)
synaptic potential
graded potential that triggers action potential

arises at synapse
receptor potential
graded potential that triggers action potential

arises at sensory receptor
neural system
group of circuits that serve a similar function
associational system
group of cells that circuits that lies between neural system

carries out complex brain functions that are not well characterized
PNS
sensory neurons link sensory receptors on body surface to CNS
somatic motor and autonomic motor divisions
autonomic motor division has sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions
ganglion
nerve cell bodies accumulated in the PNS
nerve
group of axons in the PNS
dorsal root ganglia
accumulated nerve cell bodies of the PNS; lie adjacent to the spinal cord and deliver sensory info to the spinal cord
cranial ganglia
accumulated nerve cell bodies of the PNS; lie adjacent to the brainstem
somatic motor system
division of the PNS

contains motor axons that connect skeletal muscles to CNS
autonomic motor system
division of the PNS

contains cells and axons that innervate involuntary muscle (smooth and cardiac) and glands
how is the autonomic motor division of the PNS organized?
preganglionic visceral motor neurons in the CNS synapse with peripheral motor neurons in the autonomic ganglia
sympathetic division
of the autonomic motor system of the PNS

autonomic ganglia lie along or in front of vertebral column
parasympathetic division
of the autonomic motor system of the PNS

autonomic ganglia lie in the organs they innervate
enteric division
of the autonomic motor system of the PNS

autonomic ganglia lie in the gut wall
white matter
axons of the CNS

surrounds the interior gray matter of the spinal cord
gray matter
neurons of the CNS

comprises the interior spinal cord
nucleus
compact collection of neurons in the CNS

neurons have roughly the same connections and functions
cortex
sheet-like array of neurons in the CNS
tract
accumulation of neurons in the CNS
what are the 7 divisions of the CNS?
1. spinal cord
2. medulla
3. pons
4. cerebellum
5. midbrain
6. diencephalon
7. cerebral hemispheres
which 3 structures comprise the brainstem?
1. medulla
2. pons
3. cerebellum
which 2 structures comprise the forebrain?
1. diencephalon
2. cerebral hemispheres
what are the 4 regions of the spinal cord?
1. cervical
2. thoracic
3. lumbar
4. sacral
from where do peripheral nerves arise?
from the 31 segmental pairs of the spinal cord
how does sensory info enter the CNS?
it is carried by axons of afferent neurons into the spinal cord via dorsal roots
how does motor info leave the CNS?
it is carried by axons of efferent neurons out of the spinal cord via ventral roots
what is the purpose of an enlargement of the spinal cord?
region of the spinal cord enlarged to accommodate the greater number of neurons needed to process info related to limbs
cervical enlargement
enlarged region of the spinal cord that contains neurons that process info related to the arms
lumbar enlargement
enlarged region of the spinal cord that contains neurons that process info related to the legs
cauda equina
the spinal cord is shorter than the vertebral column

the cauda equina is the emergence of the lumbar and sacral nerve roots in the vertebral canal without the spinal cord

target for LP
what is the interior of the spinal cord composed of?
gray matter

dorsal, ventral, and lateral horns
dorsal horns of the spinal cord
(posterior)

receive sensory info that enters spinal cord via dorsal roots
ventral horns of the spinal cord
(anterior)

cell bodies of motor neurons that send axons to skeletal muscles
lateral horns of the spinal cord
contain preganglionic visceral motor neurons that project to sympathetic ganglia of the PNS

found only in thoracic region
what is the exterior of the spinal cord?
white matter - axons

dorsal, ventral, and lateral columns
dorsal columns of the spinal cord
white matter axons

carry ascending sensory info from somatic mechanoreceptors
ventral columns of the spinal cord
white matter axons

carry descending motor info

carry ascending pain and temp info
lateral columns of the spinal cord
white matter axons

aka cortico-spinal tracts

axons that travel from cerebral cortex to spinal motor neurons
pons
part of the brainstem
medulla
part of the brainstem
cerebellum
part of the brainstem
diencephalon
part of the forebrain
cerebral hemispheres
part of the forebrain
cranial nerve nuclei
collections of neurons within the brainstem

targets of cranial sensory nerves
source of cranial motor nerves

11 cranial nerves
tectum
dorsal surface (roof) of midbrain

composed of superior and inferior colliculi
tegmentum
ventral surface (covering) of midbrain
folia
ridges and valleys of the cerebral cortex
neocortex
makes up most of cerebral cortex

contains 6 layers
basal ganglia
complex motor functions

hippocampal cortex (inside temporal lobe); striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei); globus pallidus
septal or basal forebrain nuclei
implicated in Alzheimer's

ventral to basal ganglia in the forebrain
amygdala
emotional processing

collection of nuclei in front of the hippocampus
internal capsule
axon tract ascending to the cerebral cortex

links cerebral cortex to the rext of the brain and spinal cord

stroke/injury to internal capsule has devastating consequences
fornix
axon tract in each of the cerebral hemispheres

interconnects hippocampus and hypothalamus
cerebral ventricles
no unique function, but useful guide to location

series of interconnected spaces in forebrain and brainstem that are filled with CSF
choroid plexus
produces CSF

composed of lateral, third, and fourth cerebral ventricles
what are the 3 regions of the cranial cavity?
anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae
meninges
protective tissue layers that surround brain inside cranial cavity; also extend down brainstem and spinal cord

dura mater; arachnoid mater; pia mater
dura mater
outermost layer of the meninges
arachnoid mater
middle layer of the meninges
pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges; adheres to surface of brain
cisterns
places where subarachnoid space is very large

(pia mater adheres closely to convoluted surface of the brain, but arachnoid mater does not)
subarachnoid space
major arteries supping the brain course through here - branches penetrate the cerebral hemispheres

frequent site of bleeding after trauma
collection of blood between meningeal layers
subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage
which arteries supply the spinal cord?
vertebral arteries (from subclavian arteries)

medullary arteries (from the aorta) - join to form anterior and posterior spinal arteries
anterior and posterior spinal arteries
1 of 2 main blood supplies to the spinal cord (the other is the vertebral arteries)

formed by the joining of the medullary arteries (branches from the aorta)
result of loss of blood supply to posterior spinal cord
loss of sensory function
result of loss of blood supply to anterior spinal cord
loss of motor function
what is the blood supply to the brain?
1. internal carotid arteries (from common carotid artery)

2. vertebral arteries (from subclavian artery)
basilar artery
joining of the right and left vertebral arteries at the pons
circle of Willis
arterial ring at the base of the brain

conjoining the 2 major sources of cerebral vascular supply improves chances of brain continuing to receive bld if one of the major arteries becomes occluded

basilar artery (rt and left vertebral arteries) + internal carotid arteries form ring
anterior circulation
supplies the forebrain - cortex and deep structures: basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule

anterior and middle cerebral arteries (arise from internal carotid artery at circle of Willis)
posterior circulation
supplies the midbrain, brain stem, and posterior cortex

branches from posterior cerebral, basilar, and vertebral arteries
AICA and PICA
anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries

both are important dorsal-lateral arteries that supply dorsal-lateral brainstem and cerebellum

common sites of occlusion and result in specific functional deficits
stroke
death or dysfunction of brain tissue due to vascular disease

often follows occlusion of or hemorrhage from arteries in the brain