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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What pigment is found in rods?
Rhodopsin

Rods mediate light perception
What pigment is found in cones?
Iodopsin

Cones mediate color perception
What muscles open the eyelid?
Levator palpebrae (CN III)
Muller's muscle (sympathetics)
What muscles close the eyelid?
Orbicularis oculi (CN VII)
What is the function of the lateral rectus?
Abduction
What is the function of the medial rectus?
Adduction
What is the function of the superior rectus?
Elevation when abducted (out).

Intorsion when adducted (in).
What is the function of the inferior rectus?
Depression when abducted (out).

Extorsion when adducted (in).
What is the function of the superior oblique?
Depression when adducted (in).

Intorsion when abducted (out).
What is the function of the inferior oblique?
Elevation when adducted (in).

Extorsion when abducted (out).
What is innervated by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve?
1. Superior rectus
2. Levator palpebrae
What is innervated by the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve?
1. Medial rectus
2. Inferior rectus
3. Inferior oblique
What is innervated by the trochlear nerve?
Superior oblique
What is innervated by the abducens nerve?
Lateral rectus
What are the subnuclei of the the oculomotor nucleus?
1. Dorsal --> inferior rectus
2. Intermediate --> inferior oblique
3. Ventral --> medial rectus
4. Medial --> superior rectus (contralateral)
5. Edinger-Westphal --> parasympathetics (bilateral)
6. Central caudal --> levator palpebrae (bilateral)
How do you remember compensatory head movements for ophthalomoparesis?
Head moves in the direction of action normally served by the affected muscle.
Which is the "false image" in diplopia?
The image farther toward the direction of gaze is seen by the abnormal eye (ie the outer image).
How can you differentiate anisocoria from Horner's syndrome vs. CNIII lesions?
In dark room room, sympathetic lesions (Horner's) are worse.

In ambient light, oculomotor lesions are worse.
What is the course of the sympathetic pathway in pupillary dilation?
1st order: Hypothalamus --> lateral brainstem and spinal cord
2nd order: T1,2 roots --> sympathetic chain
3rd order: superior cerv ganglion --> carotid plexus --> pupillary dilator muscle
What are pharmacologic causes of miosis?
Cholinergics (pilocarpine, physostigmine, organophosphates)

Opiates, barbiturates
What are pharmacologic causes of mydriasis?
Anticholinergics (atropine, scopolamine, atrovent nebs)

Adrenergics (epinephrine, cocaine, albuterol nebs)